Everyone loves coffee. Well, if not all, almost everything.
It is believed that coffee today - the most popular beverage after water on the planet.
The civilized world today is unthinkable without the culture of coffee consumption. This drink connects all aspects of our lives, starting with a morning "includes" cup, coffee break to enliven the work, a friendly chat over coffee and cake.
Coffee is a drink that serves as an occasion for many pleasant meetings - with friends, family or just a newspaper.
That is why everyone loves coffee ... or - almost all :-)
What made coffees?
If the main types of industrial coffee trees only two, then where does such a variety of grades? - Asks the curious reader.
Coffee, brewed from Robusta, has considerable strength and earthy aroma of coffee. Arabica coffee has an intense of complex flavor, reminiscent of flowers, fruit, honey, chocolate.
As a general rule, consumers are offered more than one type of coffee in its purest form, as a mixture of several varieties.
Mixing varieties pursues a very important goal - to create a well-defined and the desired taste and aroma of coffee.
Blending is an art - that is based not only on knowledge and experience, but also on intuition.
One of the most important aspects of mix - "wedding" between Arabica and Robusta. Arabica - excellent variety with a rich taste and a wonderful aroma, but it is almost half the caffeine and fat than Robusta beans. Robusta coffee is less aromatic, but gives a more complete and extractive infusion.
Thus, Arabica and Robusta, can nest in different proportions, provide a wide range of flavors and aromas of coffee drinks.
But that's not all.
The taste that you feel, taking a sip of excellent (or not) of coffee depends not only on the mixture, but also on the quality of roasting, grinding and coffee recipes matching the final result.
How to make coffee - industrial approach
The life of the future coffee tree starts with a seed sprouted. Its planted in a special container, is it still in its shell pergamentopodobnoy.
After about ten weeks of the grains there are young sprouts. After reaching seedlings 5-10 cm in height they are transplanted into high pots or plastic bags, and continue to care for them in the greenhouses.
After the height of 4-5-month-old seedlings of 30-40 cm, they are planted on the plantation or replacing the old, bad fruit trees or expanding plantations. The coffee tree begins to bloom for the first time in the third year of life. The first fruits appear in the fourth year. And only a sixth year of the coffee tree begins to bear a full harvest.
The fruits of Arabica ripen eight to nine months. Ripening Robusta little longer - ten to eleven months. Harvest time varies depending on the geographic location, climate, altitude and season of growth in the region concerned. In Brazil, the main supplier of coffee crop is harvested from May to September, in Central America from October to March, and in Africa from late October to early April. Once on the coffee trees appear ripe fruit, despite the presence of immature and continued flowering, produced a small harvest of ripe fruit. Dark red ripe fruit quality varieties are broken, usually by hand. With one tree arabica can harvest from 500 to 1500 g; Robusta - from 500 to 2000 g of coffee beans. Collection of coffee - a very time-consuming operation, and to obtain 500 g of coffee beans is necessary to disrupt the approximately 2, 5 kg of fruit.
Processing of coffee fruit
Torn coffee is transported on donkeys, carts or small truck on the farm where the fruit or primarily screened or washed with water to remove leaves and unripe fruits, stones, sand and other impurities. But this is only a preliminary treatment. Further processing of the coffee fruit is produced by two methods:
Wet processing of coffee
• Remove the fruit pulp
• removing the husk
Dry processing of coffee
• sorting and sifting
• Remove the pulp
Wet processing of coffee fruits
Most of the high-quality varieties of coffee is processed by washing. This applies to most of the Central American, Colombian and Mexican plantations, coffee Kenya and Tanzania. This coffee is called "washed" or «milds».
Coffee fruits poured into a large storage tank where they were allowed to stand overnight for swelling. The special machines, the so-called «Pulpers», removed much of the fruit pulp. Coffee fruits, which pulp is then not yet separated from the grain for further processing passage fermentation fall into the special drums installation. After fermentation in the fruit pulp is separated from the grains and removal of the covering shell. At the same time, the processes occurring in coffee beans during fermentation significantly improve the taste of coffee. Fermentation takes about a day.
Further, the grain finally washed and dried - usually in the sun. Thus there is a final separation from the pulp of the fruit of the grain. Then, a special installation is cleaned grains of silver plenochki. Fully refined grains are sorted by size - selected manually or using a special electronic equipment.
Dry processing of coffee
In dry processing, which is used primarily in Brazil and West Africa, the coffee beans are poured into the special area for drying, also known as «terreiros». Grain there dried in the sun for two to three weeks. Here coffee using a variety of devices is constantly mixed. To protect the coffee beans from the heat and the morning dew, with coffee grounds at night covered with awnings. In some climates of the crop dried by hot air of special machines - wherein the drying time is reduced to two to four days.
Once the pulp is completely dry, you can hear as a "ring" of grain inside the fruit, if they shake. The drum kits that are in Brazil, most coffee in the world, also known as «descascadores», the coffee fruits are broken up and dried beans are cleaned of flesh covering the shell and silver plenochki. Thereafter, the coffee is cleaned in a plant called «catador» and sized to install «separador». Then the best grains are selected manually or in modern enterprises electronically.
Coffee is usually transported by sea. The most convenient form of packaging is a bag. Weight packed bags varies depending on the country of origin. Usually it is in the range of 60-70 kg. For statistics take the average weight of one bag of 60 kg.
Corn green raw coffee awaits still a long road and their further processing - roasting and grinding.
How to become a coffee coffee coffee
Coffee is imported from producer countries in their raw form, usually processed in the consumer countries.
The most important component of good coffee is, along with the quality of the grain, competent selection of different varieties for a mixture (Bouquet). Each coffee maker strives to create and market their own coffee bouquets. For this purpose, mainly in Central and South American Arabica mixed with African and Indian coffees. In drawing up the bouquet consider what drinks on its basis will be prepared, for example, coffee with milk, espresso, etc. Making coffee bouquet - a real art.
Recognized masters such as the masters of the company Lavazza, well "know" the smell and taste of each class and have many years of experience. Different varieties of coffee from different countries are kept in special containers and mixed with the help of machines directly in the preparation of various flowers. At the same time the percentage of components varieties maintained very accurately. Bouquets in the future come to the fryer machine.
Roasting coffee - one of the key operations
Coffee will become a great aroma, excellent flavor and characteristic color at the stage of roasting, subject to the temperature of 200 to 250 ° C, at which evaporate beans contained essential oils.
Roasters - a very important specialist. From his professionalism, attention and care in znachitelnoy extent on the quality of frying and as a consequence, the final product. He periodically during the roasting of coffee takes a sample for monitoring progress and the degree of roasting. Furthermore, it is to the eye, as well as by means of special optical devices, monitors the state of the grain samples and compares a particular bouquet. Whole grains should be evenly roasted. Typically, coffee roasting machines roast 12 to 15 minutes. In large enterprises coffee roasting process even more accelerated and automated roasting duration (depending on the bouquet) for up to 6 minutes and is electronically controlled. When roasting coffee loses up to one sixth of the weight, but increases of up to 25%. After roasting, the beans, is already dark brown, you must unload the roasting machine and quickly cool down, otherwise the coffee will continue to "dozharivatsya" under its own temperature.
For freshly roasted coffee tasting experts with special needs, a keen sense of smell and taste, which have previously received special training. The ongoing daily tasting allow support professionals "in form." Tasters of coffee, its quality control, know, for example, in German-speaking Switzerland gourmets prefer medium roast. And, for example, French-speaking Switzerland, prefers dark coffee, ie, coffee roasting stronger. Particularly strong-roasted coffee like Tesina residents.
Instant coffee as a sign of the times
Instant coffee has recently gained wide popularity. Different can be treated to drinks based on it, but, undoubtedly, it has its adherents. In the manufacture of instant coffee is crucial to the quality grades are used. Used mostly bouquets of Brazilian, Central American and African varieties.
First of all, carefully roasted grain. Upon reaching the desired degree of roasting beans are ground and immediately cooled. Then, from the extracted soluble coffee powder components. To do this, take a basis for a process similar to the process of making coffee at home, ie, Coffee is poured hot water. The last stage of instant coffee - coffee extract concentrate. To do this, there are two methods: the method of evaporation and cryogenic.
Evaporation of the coffee extract
In this case, the coffee extract is extracted in a multisection steel tower under a stream of hot air. The water evaporates and the liquid turns into a coffee powder and cooled. In the lower section of the tower is ready for instant coffee.
Freezing coffee extract (cryogenic method)
The liquid coffee extract is rapidly frozen at a temperature of about 40C. Supplied to the surface of the metal cup or metal drum extract is converted into ice layer is separated and crumbles. The ice filled in the cup and introduced into the drying chamber. Here, the ice crystals disappear: the ice evaporates without passing to the liquid state. The entire process takes place in a vacuum and in compliance with the special procedures of heating regimes that support automatic and with high precision.
What is decaffeinated coffee?
Every coffee bean contains caffeine. Arabica caffeine content of 1-1, 5%, in robusta - 2-2 5%. People react differently to caffeine. For some people it is contraindicated, someone its consumption leads to negative consequences. But some prefer to abstain from coffee at night. To all those gourmets provide an opportunity to enjoy the wonderful aroma and taste of coffee at any time, many manufacturers have in their assortment of decaf. To obtain the grain undergo special additional treatment. To this end, green, unroasted coffee beans are steamed in steel cans for rzbuhaniya. Further, manufacturers use modern technology to extract completely harmless caffeine naturally, after which the coffee beans have caffeine carefully dried and either fried or used for making instant coffee. The extract caffeine removed from the coffee, further finds use in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.
After removal, the caffeine content is considered acceptable in the grain in the range of 0, 1%. However, in practice, the caffeine content is usually less than this value. The process results in the decaffeination of coffee weight loss of about 5%.
For gourmets who do not want to waste time grinding, but prefer natural coffee, the market offers ground coffee, packed in cans or packages with special vacuum technology. Coffee in such containers can be stored for a long time, but on opening the package of coffee must be used quickly enough, because the aroma in the package does not stay long. Roasted coffee beans can also be packaged in vacuum packaging.
Ground coffee aroma becomes faster than coffee beans. Only in exceptional cases and with the rapid use should immediately grind whole coffee packaging. It is important that the coffee beans during grinding is not heated. Therefore, impact type grinders are not the best means of grinding. The best solution is to control the grinder freeness designed for semi-automatic coffee via post (from thin to medium ground). For espresso coffee machines (medium grind) requires a special grinder, as only with proper freeness can ensure the quality of the espresso.
Six golden rules for excellent coffee
1. For coffee, use only fresh, cold water.
2. Water for coffee to be boiled, otherwise the coffee will taste bitter and lose a bit of the flavor.
3. Coffee, which is prepared coffee must be thoroughly cleaned after each use - the remains of an old coffee and cake ruining the taste and aroma of fresh drink.
4. Dishes must be selected such that it does not absorb odors and do not mix them with the aroma of coffee.
5. Coffee should not be stored for long periods in the heat, it quickly deprive him of flavor.
6. The correct proportion of coffee are the following: 1 full teaspoon (about 6-10 g) of freshly ground coffee beans per cup of 50-70 grams of water.
10 facts about coffee
Do you believe that coffee is most important and interesting in human life? If not, here's ten of interesting facts coffee and coffee-stories. To read, of course, a cup of good coffee.
10. Dry facts
Every year the world consumed 500 billion cups of coffee. The coffee industry employs over 25 million people. Coffee - one of the two most widely consumed worldwide products. According to statistics, more than coffee, humanity only buys oil.
9. Over coffee - thanks goats
It happened in the XI century, it is in the area of Kaffa, which in southwest Ethiopia. Eating leaves of coffee tree goats were so excited that even the shepherds noticed it. They decided to try the leaves themselves, to understand the secret of happiness, caprine. Then came up to eat his grain. And there was the world's favorite beverage.
8. Coffee is against the arrogant
At least, so it recommended the Russian Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich Samuel Collins, his court physician. It was in 1665, since that time, and begins the story of coffee in Russia. A noble drink has been registered to the king as a means "against arrogance, runny nose and glavoboleny." And in the East with the help of coffee has long been treated with eye diseases, scurvy and gout. There's also noticed that the coffee "accelerates thought and maketh glad the heart».
7. Coffee saved by brothers death
Twin brother will inevitably be executed by beheading, if King Gustav III did not occurred to them to devise another method of execution. He chose them as an example to see how two of the same organism will react to tea and coffee. This glorious experiment was to show the last, which of the two beverages is harmful. Therefore, the twins were given daily for 3 cups: one - tea, the other - coffee. But alas, the king and failed to wait for the moment when they will kill harmful drinks experimental criminals. King was killed in battle. And then came the turn of the doctors watching the twins. And they all lived and lived. Anyone whose drink was tea, died at 83 years old, and his brother, the coffee is consumed - a few years later.