Smoke from Columbus to the present day

21 photo.
It is known that the conditional date of birth is considered to be tobacco in 1492. When Columbus discovered America. After landing on the island he saw the aborigines who smoke something like a modern cigarette. Columbus brought cigars in Europe, and Peter I brought them to Russia.
Other sources claim that the first tobacco appears in Russia under Ivan the Terrible. It imported English merchants, it penetrates into the luggage hired officers, interventionists and the Cossacks during the Troubles. Smoking briefly becomes a temporary popularity among the nobility.

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2. When Tsar Mikhail Romanov tobacco related changes dramatically. Tobacco is subject to the official ban, contraband burned, its consumers and traders are subject to fines and corporal punishment.
Even harder began to treat tobacco Moscow after the fire in 1634, one of the probable reasons which have considered smoking. Released soon royal decree read: "The Russian people are nowhere to foreigners and all sorts of tobacco in his did not hold, and did not drink and tobacco are not sold." For disobedience was death penalty in practice replaces the "reduction" of the nose.

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3. In 1646, the Government of Alexei Mikhailovich trying to change the old order, and took in the sale of tobacco monopoly. However, under the influence of a powerful Patriarch Nikon, soon recovered harsh measures against "bogomerzkih potions." In the Cathedral the Code (1649) there was a 30-chapter, is provided to any smoking a severe punishment: & quot; ... and that the archers and walked all sorts of people with tobacco will drive two or three times, and people tried and failed odinova beat the whip on a goat, or for trading (ie, in a dungeon or on the public area) ... who the Russian people or foreigners to hold or tobacco uchnut uchnut tobacco trade and the repair ... punishment without mercy, under the death penalty ... & quot ;.

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4. In February-April 1697 a series of decrees of Tsar Peter A. (Peter I), the emperor-reformer for which an established violation of centuries of established principles of life were a sine qua non of government legalized the sale of tobacco and established rules for its distribution. It is noteworthy that the Petrine decree in 1697 first allowed to smoke to inhale and exhale only through the pipes.

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5. Smoke spread throughout the world, restrictions were lifted, and smoking has become the life of the Russians for a long time, not to mention the Europeans, Americans and others. And once again ban tobacco until recently no one dared. But more recently, a proposal was received from the authoritative British magazine «The Lancet» Scientists have turned to the government to consider storage of tobacco offense. Not for political or economic, but on purely medical grounds.

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6. Tobacco use has received a huge boost in 1881, when American James Bonzakom patented twisting a cigarette machine. The machine, which after improvements became operational in 1884, replaced the inefficient manual method, thereby dramatically lowering operating costs. Before the advent of cigarettes, including cigarettes, tobacco consumption generally occurs in the form of cigars, smoking pipes, snuff and chewing tobacco.

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7. 1902 company Phillip Morris opens predststavitelstvo In New York, this Piram was founded in 1847. Phillip Morris begins to actively engage in marketing and manufactures cigarettes Marlboro. Cigarettes are becoming popular and in 1913 the company released RJReynolds cigarettes Camel. Camel quickly won half of the cigarette market in the United States. But in the 20 years we began to smoke tlko not men but also women.

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8. zhenischina this is not that bad and did not find Phillip Morris decides to make Marlboro cigarettes as if women with the slogan "May as a soft" .In 1939 American Tobacco Company launches new brand Pall Mall, thereby becoming the largest tobacco company in the US .

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9. Another ad plokat company Phillip Morris prapogandiruyuschy female smoking.

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10. During the 2nd World War (1939-1945) the sale of cigarettes kept at a high level. Cigarettes are included in soldiers' rations as food. Tobacco companies sent millions of cigarettes free to soldiers, and after the war, becoming a huge number of regular customers. "Golden Age" of the tobacco industry is considered to be the end of the 40's - early 50-ies, when the famous movie actors make cigarette smoking a cigar and an integral part of their image, luxurious and mysterious. In the 50 years begin to produce filter cigarettes and are born Winston. In the 80s and 90s tobacco steel exported to Asia and the Marlboro brand cigarettes recognize luchsheё.
The image of the same Stalin would not be complete without a steaming tube.

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11. Tobacco has become an integral part of human culture by making it their slaves.
In every country in the world it was conducted or conducted so far the promotion of tobacco smoking.

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12. In the 80 already become smoke "politically incorrect." Banning smoking in public places, at work, in the offices. Cigarette advertising is also prohibited. In many countries, to deal with the sale of cigarettes not sovershenoletnim. We have said earlier that often smoked cigars znaminitogo, and now it zaprscheno. DO NOT just sigret presence in movies and music in the media and on television. The world community has come to the thought that it is necessary to correct the error of Columbus. It's time to forget about tobacco.

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13. The word "tobacco" (eng. Tobacco, lat. Nicotiana tabacum), possibly derived from the name of the island of Tobago. According to the stories of Spanish sailors, who arrived in 1492 to the coast of present-day Central America, with the expedition of Columbus, the word «tobaco» the locals called large twisted leaves, which they used for the ritual of smoking. And of course botanists can learn that this plant family Solanaceae, which in dried form used for smoking.

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14. Subsequently, the Portuguese and Spaniards brought the leaves and seeds of tobacco in Europe, then Europeans, too, have begun to grow tobacco.
Since the second half of the 16th century, tobacco has become quickly gaining popularity as a medicinal plant, almost a panacea. Tobacco sniffed, chewed, smoked, mixed with various substances and used for the treatment of headache, toothache, colds, skin and infectious diseases.
In 1571 the Spanish doctor Nicolas Mondares wrote a book about the healing plants of the New World. According to the doctor, tobacco could cure 36 diseases. In 1588, a resident of Virginia, Thomas Harriet began to promote daily tobacco smoking as a way to the general improvement of the body, but he soon died of cancer.

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15. In recognition of the healing properties of tobacco Europeans suddenly and fully agreed with the Indians, who generally believed tobacco gift from the gods.
In the early 17th century on the territory of modern America, mainly in the British colonies, and any other tobacco plantation.
In the eighteenth century cigars were already extremely popular and smoking in almost all the Courts.

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16. Russian Tsarina Catherine II sent cigars decorated with silk ribbons to her delicate fingers do not touch the royal tobacco leaves, and some semblance of the most ribbons we see on modern cigars.

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17. In the east, in the Muslim countries were instruments for smoking tobacco in which the smoke is passed through water - water pipes.
The spread of the tobacco to the following factors:
1. novelty. Residents of the Old World carries everything that was happening in faraway America.
2. Health Benefits. Then it was thought that using tobacco can be treated ulcers, migraine, skin and infectious diseases, to use it as an analgesic for pain.
3. Economics. Raising tobacco brings a stable income in the long run, she dictated the attitude to tobacco in all Western European society.
But tobacco has always been and opponents. King James I of England in the early 17th century, has repeatedly opposed the smoking habit considering harmful to health, which plays into the hands of the Spanish trade (the main enemy of England at the time). King argued that cigarette smoking brings people in peaceful state, and thereby weaken the military power of the country, which is quite true. King introduced the most import duties on tobacco to England, and in France the same undertook Cardinal Richelieu.

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18. These are soft and civilized tobacco control measures had no significant effect on the distribution of tobacco, but only contributed to the prosperity of smuggling. In Turkey, fighting tobacco more serious measures, since smoking is often the cause of fires. Smokers were subjected to corporal punishment, shameful ceremonies and even sentenced to death. However, all prohibitions and exhortations it does not help to eradicate smoking then do not help today, when every person from early childhood is known that "smoking is dangerous to your health».
Currently, tobacco is grown throughout the world.

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19. Tobacco - deadly gift that gave the New World Old. Europeans have lived for thousands of years without smoking until America was discovered. Indians of North and South America were the first who began to grow tobacco. In North America, the Indians used tobacco in many ceremonies: recall, for example, puffing peace pipes.

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20. However, enterprising Europeans decided to make the called tobacco addiction and began to grow and sell tobacco in industrial scales. Not all countries tobacco smoking caught on at once - one time the Turks threatened the death penalty for smoking tobacco, as mentioned above, the Russian tsar ordered heavy smokers torn nostrils, after which they were flogged and exiled to Siberia. However, sales of the drug brings high profits today, of course, tobacco smoke virtually anywhere in the world.

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21. So, mankind took 500 years to the fun-smoking through smoking-fashion, to realize that it has turned out to be enslaved, that its very existence on earth is at stake. How many centuries now the need to release?
P.S. Himself smoke, thinking of throwing, but without fanaticism.

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