How to extract oil

13 photo. Taken from here.

1. With the oil we were not lucky. If Iraq or Saudi Arabia is enough to drill a shallow hole in the sand, which is easily accessible to any SUV, we have oil concentrated in the Siberian marshes where in winter -50 and 30 in the summer and mosquitoes the size of a good mammoth.

Boring in the swamp is impossible, therefore Petroleum first cut down the forest, a swamp drained and paved area of ​​sand, so-called "bush", which brings to the road and electricity. Not to pour a pad for each well, they are combined in groups of a few dozen on a single hive, and not drilled down vertically and obliquely.

Downhole (her bottom) can be horizontally a few kilometers from the bush, and there is a well with a withdrawal of 12 kilometers, for example, on Sakhalin. They are drilled at an angle, because the bush alone and geologists need to cover a large area of ​​the wells or fields, for example, you need to extract the oil, which is located near the town or reserve.

At different fields are drilled at different depths. In Western Siberia, well depth of 1, 5 - 2, 5 km away, in the Volga region may reach 4, 5 km, in Eastern Siberia, about 2-3 km.

During the construction of wells involved dozens of different services: begin "seismic", then comes "osvoentsy", then drillers (which are divided into service drilling fluids, geophysical investigations, telemetry and of bit service), then the service workover further extraction (workers Booty They called themselves with the accent on O). They, in turn, serve different "security platoon" - removal of sludge, machinery etc.

For all these works Oil Company (NC) attracts numerous contractors. The same applies to the dumping of the bushes, roads, construction of dormitories for workers, and so on. NK itself holds the license for the deposit, and manages and financing of all the works performed by oil service companies. That's why oil companies are so many different "daughters».

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Used for drilling rigs (pardon the oil oil) weighing about 1000 tons. At the top of the derrick winch suspended from a giant hook, which moves up and down a huge motor. This design is called "top drive".

The first bit is lowered into the well (blank spiked with three rotating heads-cutters), which itself is boring. It navёrnuto on the drill collar (meter a pipe diameter of 165 mm and weighs 135 kg). In turn, drill collar navёrnuty to conventional drill pipe, which are pre-screwed in "candles" with 2-4 pieces together.

All of this sausage is called "drill string" and fastened to the shaft of a huge motor, suspended on a giant hook.

When drilling the well "top drive" starts to rotate the whole sausage and fall down, shifting the weight on bit columns. A typical drill string in the well to a depth of 3 km has a weight of 100-150 tons. It is a weight that hangs on a giant hook. The descent and ascent drill strings produce a lot of time because of the need to change the bit.

Through a special pipe pumped fluid - mud - under the pressure of about 50-150 atmospheres. The solution passes across the inside of the sausage and out through the bit, cooling it and then returns to the surface through the space between the casing wall and the walls of the well, bringing to the surface cuttings (rock drilled).

The solution was purified and sludge is discharged into sludge pits (pit, which after drilling ends, necessarily recultivated, that is filled with soil and planted grass on it).

As required (risk of landslides, etc.) enhance the well casing, and then continue to drill bit smaller. Well their entire segment is not the same in diameter: starts with 393mm, 295mm below, then 215, and finally 143mm.

On the drilling goes from one month to a year, depending on many factors: length, geology, sloppiness oil and drilling companies, etc.

2. In the finished hole is lowered so-called casing, and the space between it and the cement is pumped into the borehole wall. This is done to hinder the collapse of the borehole walls:

3. obsadiv drilled and borehole drilling rig by using hydraulic jacks and pushers are transported by rail to 5-7 meters in the direction of drilling a new well. Drilled wells begins to engage in service workover (RNC).

4. If you need to transport the rig to another bush, it is broken down into modules and shipped piece by piece to a new location, where once again gather. In remote areas, where the field is not yet mastered, rigs collect the blocks with the help of helicopters. Initial installation of the drilling usually lasts a little over a month:

5. In order that the oil flows into the well cemented, it lowered a special charge that shoots holes in the casing at the required depth. Then descend to the well electric pump attached to the tubing (tubing), of which oil is supplied to the surface:

6. The whole structure is crowned by ground-based equipment, called in Russian "christmas tree", and in English Christmas Tree (Christmas Tree). Pump oil has directly centrifugal pump lowered to the bottom of the well, which feeds the withdrawn liquid (once the oil emulsion called correctly) for various treatment plant:

7. bush wells are drilled in a row by an average of 5 meters from each other. Each hole has its own "switchblade line" on which the emulsion (oil + water) enters the AGZU - measuring units, which measured "flow rate" (the amount of product produced per day):

8. The metal structure of the wells - a cable rack:

9. But to these pipes flowing oil. Many of our fields have a high water content, that is, out of the well, for example, only 30 percent of its oil, and all the rest - water. That it does not freeze in the pipes, they wrapped insulation:

10. The wells are drilled "drillers" and the oil pump are "operators in oil and gas." Drillers live directly on a bush in the wagons, and all the other operators on the support of Providence Base (SSB).

11. wagons drillers necessarily present dryer, bath and dining room. Prepare delicious, and even statements during his detour shrubs often drive the chisel to eat. Set lunch costs about $ 100.

Work drillers very dangerous (high pressure in the pipes for drilling, work for hoisting machines) and requires high concentration of attention. But the problem is that the workers get tired, lose concentration and therefore often the case of injury, and very heavy (tear off arms and legs, lose their eyesight, dying). This is an urgent problem in the industry.

Work on drilling the watch method. Watch lasts from 2 weeks to a month. For hard labor assistant driller gets about 80 thousand rubles per month. Then a month rests and gets nothing. Total get 40 rubles a month.

12. Each field has a so-called "torch". It is necessary to burn dissolved in the oil associated gas. At various fields GOR different: somewhere a lot of gas, and in some cases it is almost there.

Usually, people are surprised, why not sell the gas to Gazprom? The answer is simple: cleaning of associated gas and bring it to the standards of Gazprom is much more expensive than the gas itself. It is easier and cheaper to burn it. However, since 2012 all oil companies are required to bring the associated gas utilization to 95%. That is not to throw away any slag in the atmosphere, and clean and sell:

13. (End)



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