With oil we were not lucky. If in Iraq or Saudi Arabia enough to drill a shallow hole in the sand, which is easily accessible to any SUV, we have concentrated oil in the Siberian bogs where winter -50 and +30 in the summer and mosquitoes the size of a good baby mammoth.
Drilled in the swamp is impossible, therefore, first of Petroleum cut down the forest, swamp drained and paved area of sand, the so-called "bush", which brings to the road and electricity. Not to pour a pad for each well, they are combined in groups of a few dozen on one bush, and the Buryats not vertically downward and obliquely.
Bottom of the well (her bottom) can be horizontally a few kilometers from the bush, and there is a well with a withdrawal of 12 kilometers, for example, on Sakhalin. They are drilled at an angle, because the bush alone, and geologists have to cover a large area wells or fields, for example, you need to extract the oil, which is located near the town or reserve.
In different fields are drilled at different depths. In Western Siberia, well depth of 1, 5 - 2, 5 km away, in the Volga region may reach 4, 5 km, in Eastern Siberia, about 2-3 km.
During the construction of wells involved dozens of different services: begin "seismic", then come "osvoentsy", then drillers (which are divided into the service of drilling fluids, geophysical studies, telemetry and service of bit), then the service workover, further mining (workers Booty called themselves with the accent on O). They, in turn, serve different "security platoon" - removal of sludge, machinery etc.
To accomplish all of these works Oil Company (NC) has attracted numerous contractors. The same applies to the dumping bushes, roads, construction of dormitories for workers, and so on. NK itself holds the license to the field and is engaged in the management and financing of all work performed by oil service companies. That is why the oil companies are so many different "daughters".
Used for drilling rigs (pardon the oil oil) weighing about 1000 tons. At the top of the derrick suspended winch with a giant hook, which moves up and down a huge motor. This design is called "top drive".
The first bit is lowered into the well (blank spiked with three rotating heads-cutters), which itself is boring. It navёrnuto on the drill collar (meter a pipe diameter of 165 mm and weighs 135 kg). In turn, drill collar navёrnuty to conventional drill pipe, which are pre-screwed in the "candle" for 2-4 pieces together.
All of this sausage is called "drill string" and fastened to the shaft of a huge motor, suspended on a giant hook.
When drilling a well "top drive" starts to rotate all the sausage and goes down, leaving the string weight on bit. A typical drill string in the well to a depth of 3 km has a weight of 100-150 tons. This is a weight that hangs on a giant hook. Descent and ascent drill strings produce a lot of time because of the need to change the bit.
Is pumped through the pipe with a special liquid - the mud - under pressure of about 50-150 atmospheres. The solution passes across the inside of the sausage and out through the bit, cooling it, and then returns to the surface through the space between the walls and the walls of the well string, carrying cuttings to the surface (drilled rock).
The solution was purified and sludge discharged into the sludge pits (pit, which ends after drilling, be sure recultivated, that is filled with soil and planted grass on it).
As required (risk of landslides, etc.) enhance the well casing, and then continue to drill bit smaller. Well for all its segment is not the same in diameter: 393mm begins with, then only 295mm, then 215, and finally 143mm.
On the drilling goes from one month to a year, depending on many factors: the length, geology, oil and sloppiness drilling companies, etc.
In the finished hole is lowered so-called casing, and the space between it and the cement is pumped into the borehole wall. This is done to hinder the collapse of the borehole walls:
Drilled and obsadiv well, the rig using hydraulic jacks and pushers are transported by rail to 5-7 meters in the direction of drilling a new well. Drilled wells begins to engage in service workover (RED).
If you want to move the rig to another bush, it is broken down into modules and transported piece by piece to a new location, where once again gather. In remote areas, where the field is not yet developed, the rigs collect the blocks with the help of helicopters. Primary rigging usually lasts a little more than a month:
To the oil enters the cemented well, it lowered a special charge that shoots holes in the casing at the required depth. Then lowered into the borehole electric pump attached to the tubing (tubing), through which oil flows to the surface: