The formula for success in the illegal oil business consists of only one word - Box
In the past year, according to the Interior Ministry, were committed in Russia more than 11 thous. Crimes in the sphere of fuel and energy complex. Losses from malicious activity amounted to approximately 10 million tons of finished products. The biggest headache so-called law enforcement agencies deliver vrezchiki - people involved in the theft of crude oil from the main pipeline. The most difficult situation in the Samara region and Dagestan. In the first case it affected the pipeline "Druzhba", the second - the Baku - Novorossiysk. Box - a symbol of success and prosperity. She - the best gift for the wedding and the young guarantee secure old age. This convinced the reporter "PP", watch the how the pipe guards in Dagestan
9 ph + letter via Vladimir Antipin
- Yes ... Custom Box. Rarely are there.
The commander of the combined unit "Dagestan", the soldiers who guarded the main oil pipeline, Victor Shuliko thoughtfully examines a small metal structure, cleverly embedded in the lower part of the main pipe. Usually tie for illegal oil withdrawal made at the top or side. And it found almost by accident - by hand, with the help of half meter probe. Himself pipeline is laid on depth of two meters. On top of the usual field sown with wheat. Uninitiated to guess that here is inset, is almost impossible.
- One can see that the highest levels of specialist cooked - continues Shuliko. - Crashing into a tube in which pressurized oil banish simple welder can not. Everything should be done in a few minutes, with one electrode. A second attempt will not. And that, apparently, still hanging upside down. The administration has repeatedly demanded to catch such spices. He did not want to put - to work for us to take.
Most of the illegal connections, found recently, surprised experts workmanship. Criminals use prefabricated structure with a check valve that does not allow to detect when a frame in-line inspection. Apply plastic pipes with spetsizolyatsiey.
Today's Box discovered in the north of Dagestan, on the pipeline with the official title "bypass around the Chechen Republic." For the case of the local "black oil" came thoroughly. Up to the point of incision on the paved half-meter depth of the special six kilometers long pipeline with a few twists. On the surface he was taken to "zelenke", which here is not even visible.
To get to the underground tank farm on the "Cornfield" accounted for about twenty minutes. After examining her, the fighters "Dagestan" has once again become convinced that they are dealing with a super pros: it has everything, including a system of special ventilation, drainage canal and a small pantry for food. Near a country road with traces bolshegruzov. Due to the abundance of trees basis impossible to notice even from a helicopter.
- It is necessary to check, spring wheat on the field planted or winter. Then it becomes clear how long the oil is stolen - explains Shuliko. - Turn the tube until they paved the planting season, it shows. Moreover, we are using special equipment. And indeed the wheat here, apparently, for the species planted. Some it is homely, the weeds more than the most wheat. Well, we understand why we had not found the sidebar.
The combined group works 700 people. The area of responsibility - a 530-kilometer section of the Baku - Novorossiysk, passing through the territory of Dagestan. Of weapons from fighters pistols, carbines "Saiga" and rubber batons. Most of the staff - former veterans of the security services and the military. If necessary, these people are ready to use force without a second thought. In this sense, the law is always on their side. Last year, the State Duma has extended the powers of the security services of "Gazprom", Russian Railways, and "Transneft". Today, these structures are more like small, well-equipped private armies. But even they have not been able to crush the oil underground. Bid too high.
Dagestan - a wonderful region, the laws of mathematics are not valid. Republic is one of the largest exporters of oil in the south of Russia. In 2008, the CIS countries took away the petroleum feedstock and semi-finished products of derivatives of $ 30 million. And this is only the official data, which in the ancient Caucasian tradition, can safely be increased several times. Dagestan itself consumes over 500 thous. Tons of oil products, which in terms of crude oil is about 4 million tons. However, the legal regional oil production in 2009 amounted to only 164 thousand. Tonnes. Whence then sold abroad took millions of tons? If you believe the math out of the air. But mathematics is too honest science, taking into account such factors as the numerous tie-in to the main oil pipeline.
In Dagestan, today there are more than forty different power refineries. This is not even the number of refineries in the Tyumen region. Some plants work officially, and even pay taxes. According to the documents they process oil from neighboring Kalmykia, but in fact it thoroughly diluted one that sucked out of the pipeline.
However, at each refinery, which works fairly even according to the documents, there are several underground. For example, operational information in only one small area of illegal refineries Kizlyar five offices. And almost all of them, until recently, it was loaded to full capacity stolen Azeri and Kazakh oil from Baku - Novorossiysk pipeline, passing through the territory of the republic. Serious Dagestani man and say, we have, as in Russia, it is possible to earn good money, or "sitting on a budget" or "sitting on a pipe».
- Two years ago, the theft of oil has reached such proportions that in general there was a question about the feasibility of the existence of the pipeline - says Jafar Nasirov.
Jafar headed the local branch of "Transneft" (this company owns the oil pipeline Baku - Novorossiysk) and a half years ago. For the "Transneft" the decision to open a special office in Dagestan, directly subordinate to Moscow, was unprecedented. Nothing like in the Russian regions, the company is still not there. Individual representations were only in foreign countries. The fact speaks volumes.
- Before the pipeline was guarded by three local unit, formally included in the security service of our company. Everyone is responsible for his plot. In fact, the monitoring of their actions on the part of the state was actually lost. Then I taxied to all criminals. The tube is roughly privatized. Soldiers were guarding the pipeline is not, and illegal tapping - Jafar Nasirov joined the "oil" of the FSB, so says carefully weighing every word. - In general, these disparate teams themselves completely compromised, they had to disband. We create a united squad "Dagestan". Changed management. Rather, part of the leadership. Many can not dismiss so far: labor law does not allow. Just know that the employee involved in the theft of oil, but the hand is not caught, goes to work properly, the job descriptions does not break. Some of the dismissed even managed to recover through the courts. In general, cleaning series - troublesome.
For half a year of enemies at Nasirov significantly increased, to the threats in the address he had used. However, until now he walks without protection. Said decide to kill - kill. By contract killings in Dagestan general philosophical attitude. During our trip in the country shot and killed three heads of regional administrations. Locals say: quiet week has stood out.
- Tube - a delicate matter, - explains Nasirov. - You've got to drive from her or indiscriminately, or just indiscriminately at bay so deprived not shoot began. I chose the first option.
During the year the number of illegal connections to the main pipeline has decreased three times, and fuel prices in Dagestan equaled the all-Russian. Previously, gasoline in the country was a quarter less. However, Dagestan is still the largest exporter of oil among neighboring regions. Singe gasoline produced here, but do not consume. At the local gas stations did not sell: the coolest cars in the Caucasus, many, God forbid, the engine of a "Mercedes" kryaknet - the penalty for such a violation of the rights of the consumer in the best physical injuries. Therefore, the Caucasian oil makes semi-finished and drive it for sale to European countries - tank trucks or sea. For example, the Polish and Czech refineries have long been making gasoline from raw Dagestan Azerbaijani and Kazakh origin. Dagestan same motorists, like most Russians, has recently enjoyed high-quality fuel with the official plants.
- In order to successfully steal the oil, we need three components: law enforcement officer, security officer of "Transneft" and any of the officials who will take over the functions of the organizer - explains Jafar Nasirov. - Once these three alone meet and find mutual understanding, wait for the frame. And by the Security Service even enough of corrupt guards. It will just get round the place of illegal oil withdrawal.
By the way, a couple of months ago in Dagestan "Transneft" simple security guard tried to get fellow Republican administration. It struck at a police channels - and it turned out that this master owned a small refinery plant. The man "was sitting on a budget", but wanted to be completely happy, "sit on the tube." It did not happen.
- Elimination of the simplest tie costs 30-40 thousand rubles. It is if you do not have to stop pumping oil. If a spill happens, the damage is already estimated in the millions.
Sergei Sivolapov started working in the company of a simple guard. Today, he is the deputy chief coach of the district office trunk oil pipelines operating. Eliminating illegal connections - this is just his area of responsibility. Most of the time, Sergei carries on business trips throughout the North Caucasus.
- There is no ideal frames. A specialist can find any. That's just to get those who are behind it, it is practically impossible, - says Sivolapov and quietly adds: - punch - this is a great policy. Laws tightening is useless, anyway they do not comply. We need the political will.
Word of the political will that is required to restore order around the pipe, I hear again and again. Just as the phrase that all illegal oil refinery in the country is controlled by local officials and security forces. The latter, incidentally, often refuse to initiate criminal cases on crimes of oil. For example, a month ago, the men of the consolidated group "Dagestan" discovered two fresh tie at Kizlyar area. The criminal case was not filed until now. In March this year in the same area on the direct orders of the police district authorities did not let a specialist of "Transneft" to the pipe: just blocked the only road leading to the discovery of the sidebar.
At the time, Jafar Nasirov transferred to local law enforcement agencies lists of members of organized crime groups involved in the theft of oil. Data were collected by security, they were given space frames, the names and positions of "black oil". There was no response.
The position of the policemen told "PP" succinctly explained the head of the criminal investigation department of Nogai district of Dagestan Rasul Kokeneev:
- We have to fight against this phenomenon is difficult. It's not obvious crime, secret plan, a conspiracy. But we still have to fight the terrorists. In addition, courts in most cases give the detainees for theft of oil suspended sentences, although the article and are considered serious. And what's the point to catch them?
Nogai district once famous for the so-called parliamentary OPG, which organized the theft of oil in the fairy scale. "Deputatskaya" grouping called simply because all its members were deputies of district and village councils. There were active several heads of local administrations. The point of Deputies passed several times the chain of command, as a result only after it appeared in Kislovodsk, one of the deputies, Rasul Orak, received three years in prison. Cases of other MPs have been allocated in a separate proceeding and gradually blown away.
Today, the main "star" of illegal oil refinery - the deputy chief of the tax inspectorate Tarumovsky district of Dagestan Ali Agalhanov. A year ago, he was officially convicted of the theft of oil. He received three years probation. Newly caught again in the same and in the same place. Agalhanova declared wanted. A couple of months a person in the search for national, lived quietly at home until he decided to surrender. Yes, and he just gave up because they took to implement frames about a million dollars. It did not let his pipe, that tax collector and decided to hide from creditors in Makhachkala prison.
Ten years ago, taps on pipe Dagestan Baku - Novorossiysk almost was not. Stealing oil mainly engaged in Chechnya. However, in 2000, ended with a freebie for the Chechens, "Transneft" has built a bypass line. Dagestan, unlike neighboring Chechnya, can not be evaded, transport tube is simply nowhere. So order to direct still have.
- By the tube will continue to climb - said Jafar Nasirov. - On a good sidebar you can become a dollar millionaire in a month. In addition, serious people invested in refineries. And this is also not a cheap pleasure. So I have his men do not promise an easy life. I feel that now is a lull before the storm. Soon will aggravation.
While most of the senior staff of the local representative of "Transneft" are specialists seconded from other regions. They have links with the local, but here it means a lot. Find a good specialist in the position of leadership - a big problem. For example, Nasirov said a few days ago, appointed a new head of the team in the Khasavyurt. The territory of the complex. In March, there blew a company car fighters "Dagestan", returning from duty. Three people were injured. This year it was the second attack on security personnel. Fighting has stuck to the tube - it is really deadly.
Outskirts of the village Terekli-Mekteb. At 300 meters from the main oil pipeline directly into the open field it was built a huge illegal refineries, which can be seen several kilometers away. This is not an underground tank farm, carefully nestled in the "zelenke" from prying eyes. There is a serious production that no one was going to hide. Box into the tube too, especially not masked. This small factory refinery set a record: it could not close for several months. Local authorities on the claims of "Transneft" did not respond. Nothing. Cover the illegal selection of oil was only after a direct appeal to heads of state. Thereafter sidebar finally eliminated, but the factory is still standing. Equipment guarding local police. I asked the elder, whose property the police so zealously protects. Sergeant long hesitates, then raises his index finger up and whispers:
- In Moscow, the owner. Serious man.
Doubts word policeman I did not cause. Once the decision to close this refinery took two of the most serious man in Russia, and a host of zavodika by definition can not be frivolous.
For illegal selection of oil in the majority of cases go to trial ordinary performers: detained at the scene working underground storage depots and tanker driver. Criminal cases are instituted under article "theft". Works in the Dagestani villages is almost there. The average salary in the local state farms does not exceed 500 rubles per month. So find a new job the organizers of illegal oil production is not much difficulty. Specialists directly involved in tapping and paves the "left" branch from the trunk oil pipeline caught extremely rare. They are considered qualified personnel. Underground oil generals such people cherish as relatives.
Interestingly, in Dagestan me no one responded to the seemingly simple question: how many are stealing oil from a pipeline - a day, a week, a month. The most popular answer:
- Who the hell knows. It depends on how you count.
On the plane, my neighbor is a businessman from Makhachkala Tamerlane. Learning why we flew to Dagestan, he mutters sadly: