Interesting facts about oil, its characteristics and things that produce from it.
1. The word oil is - "something rend (land)»
In Russian, the word comes from the Turkish oil (from the word neft), which is derived from the Persian naft, and which in turn was borrowed from Semitic languages. Akkadian (Assyrian) nartn word "oil" is derived from the Semitic verbal root nrt with an initial value of "spewing, wring" (Arabic naft, nafta - "regurgitate, to take away»).
There are other versions of the word oil. For example, according to some sources, the word is derived from the oil napatum Akkadian, meaning "to flash, ignite," on the other - from the ancient Iranian naft meaning "something wet, liquid».
Here, for example, the Chinese, first, by the way, to drill an oil well back in the year 347 BC, it was called and still call oil - shi yo, which literally means "mountain oil».
To this end, the Chinese engineers used bamboo pipes for drilling to a depth of 240 meters below the surface and produce the first drops of oil. Oil at that time was used for the evaporation of sea water and salt production.
The word petroleum, which the Americans and the British called crude oil, too, by the way, means "butter mountain" and comes from the Greek petra (mountain) and the Latin oleum (oil).
2. Oil is used by people for over 6,000 years.
Oil is known to people since ancient times. In ancient Babylon, the bitumen used in the construction of buildings and sealing vessels. Tar was first used in the VIII century, in Baghdad, the construction of roads. The ancient Egyptians and later the Greeks used to illuminate the primitive lamps, which served as fuel for light
During the Byzantine Empire, "Greek fire" - an incendiary mix, was a formidable weapon, because the attempt to extinguish it with water only increased combustion. Its exact composition is lost, but scientists believe that it was a mixture of various petroleum products and other combustible materials.
3. The chemical composition of the oil is very similar to coal - it is also the main constituent component is carbon. Therefore, oil and gas, along with coal, peat and shale, scientists refer to a class of minerals - caustobiolites.
In 1763 Lomonosov published a work "On the layers of the earth," where he suggested that oil and coal come in various ways from the same organic matter.
In studies of the origin of oil is and alien trace. At the end of the XIX century Russian scientist V. Sokolov suggested that hydrocarbon molecules contained in the gas and dust cloud from which formed our planet.
One of the early theories of the origin of oil is expected that this black substance - not that other, as ... urine whales sink to the bottom of the oceans and then through underground channels penetrating into the bowels of the earth.
4. By the way, you love whales?
Yes? Well, because it is only thanks to oil, they were saved from complete destruction.
In the nineteenth century there was a huge demand for whale oil. Whale oil was widely used in lighting lamps, as it burns slowly without giving off fumes and unpleasant odors. In addition, whale oil was used to make candles, as a lubricant for clockworks, as a protective coating in the early photographs as well as a mandatory element in the manufacture of medicines, soap and cosmetics.
Because of high demand, whaling in the middle of the XIX century led to the almost complete extinction of these animals. But thanks to cheaper kerosene, obtained during distillation of crude oil, and the opening of safe use as a light source, the demand for whale oil began to decline sharply. US whaling fleet, for example, in 1846 consisted of 735 vessels, and by 1879 there are only 39. After all, whaling is almost completely ceased since lost any economic sense.
The only thing for which still use whale oil - a space exploration. It turned out that whale oil (or rather the fat of sperm whales) do not freeze even at extremely low temperatures (which exist in outer space). This unique property of whale blubber - the perfect lubricant for use in space probes.
5. Once fuel was extremely cheap ... as it was useless.
In the early days of the oil industry target product of oil refining was
kerosene. This was even before the passenger cars have become a popular and widely used means of transportation. Gasoline, while the former by-product in the distillation of petroleum naphtha, had no significant demand. It was a very cheap product, which is used to treat lice or as a solvent for cleaning greasy stains from fabric. In fact, gasoline was so cheap that many oil companies simply dumped him into the river.
6. What color is the oil?
Usually it is black. But oil is red, green, amber, blue and colorless. The color depends on the quantity of oil, the nature and color of resinous substances contained therein. Colorless or white oil - is essentially a gas condensate. From the color of the quality of its oil it is practically independent. The quality of the oil affects the share of non-hydrocarbon impurities. The more of them in the oil, so it is harder, or more viscous, thick, uncomfortable for mining. When it is processing a large number of heavy fractions. From light oils obtained gasoline, kerosene and gas oil fractions.
7. The reason why so rich sheikhs caudovskie.
Oil - a complex process, but at the same time, oil production technology has been well studied and worked. Saudi Aramco - national company, the leading oil production in Saudi Arabia and is fully owned by the state. This company is the world's largest oil company by production volumes.
Do you know how much it costs the company Saudi Aramco production of barrels of oil?
It knows the magazine Forbes. Here's what he wrote:
Saudi Aramco - the most profitable company in the world. She did not disclose fully its financial performance, but roughly its net profit of 200 bln. Dollars. Per year, with annual revenue exceeding $ 350 billion. Dollars. Last year, Oil Minister Ali Al-Naimi told reporters that the average production cost of one a barrel of oil in Saudi Arabia is $ 2. For sale this barrel of oil is more expensive $ 100. If you skip the same barrel of oil through an integrated petrochemical plant, he will easily have 500 dollars in revenue.
For comparison, in the Russian oil company Rosneft cost of extracting one barrel of oil is on average 14, 57 dollars. And given the costs of exploration, drilling and refinery upgrades obtained for 21 US dollars per barrel.
8. In 1900, Russia produces more than half of the world's total oil production.
In 1900, Russia produced 631, 1 million. Pounds of oil, which amounted to 51, 6% of the world's oil.
While oil production was conducted in 10 countries: Russia, the United States, the Netherlands East Indies, Romania, Austria-Hungary, India, Japan, Canada, Germany, Peru. The major oil-producing countries are Russia and the United States, which together accounted for over 90% of world oil production.
Peak oil production in Russia was in 1901, when it produced 706, 3 million. Pounds of oil (50, 6% of world production). After that, because of the economic crisis and falling demand oil production in Russia began to decline. The price of oil, which amounted in 1900, 16 kopecks. per pud in 1901 due to excess supply has fallen by 2 times to 8 kopecks. for pud. In 1902, the price was 7 kopecks. per pud then the tendency to demand recovery and oil production. This trend was interrupted by the 1905 revolution was accompanied by arson and the total defeat of the Baku oil fields.
To date, 40% of Russia's oil is produced by a single company - "Rosneft».
Every seventh car in Russia is recharged at the gas station / ACP distribution network "Rosneft»
And they - the largest taxpayer of the Russian Federation - 1/5 of the tax revenue to the Russian budget in 2013
People for many centuries, natural cosmetics applied to the lips, eyes and face, but most of those present on the market today lipsticks and eye podvodok all its beauty thanks to acquire oil products and refined petroleum products, such as propylene glycol, and coal tar dyes. In view of this, a little bit surprised by the fact that many women still use petroleum product known as petroleum jelly to remove the liner, or use it as a base for lipstick.
10. Solar panels
Solar panels can help homeowners and businesses to use renewable sources of energy, ie the energy of sunlight, but most boards still consist of petroleum resins, and plastic parts of the photovoltaic cells. However, it soon may change, because many companies have begun to develop new organic resin and bioplastics, which could replace the components of the oil-based batteries.
At the same time, and the oil companies are interested in solar energy and energy-saving technologies
During the construction of filling stations in the format of the Olympic Sochi "Rosneft" has installed solar power and LED lighting equipment. The use of such systems allows to save from 35 to 45 thousand. KWh of electrical energy a year. In sunny weather, the module is able to produce that amount of energy, which will provide employment office equipment, cash registers, server, electric swing automatic doors and parts of refrigeration. And as a consequence, it can reduce emissions into the environment.
LED lighting in the ACP not only to create a cozy atmosphere, but also reduces power consumption. In addition to long life (15 years) and a high light output ratio, the LEDs provide reliability: 2veroyatnost failure of the lighting is practically impossible, because the starting currents are absent.
11. Nemnuschayasya clothing
Of course, cotton - is everything, but the polyester pants, shirts and other garments have their advantages: they do not crumple, they are durable and resistant to many spots. These properties belong to refined petroleum products, where with the help of several forms of oil and created Polyester - a synthetic material that helps to put millions of people. But not all that bad, as from recycled polyester obtained new, high-quality polyester fiber.
12. Chewing gum
People who love to chew gum, have to thank for its creation of petroleum resins. Today, chewing gum is made from both natural latexes in combination with mineral oil and of polyethylene wax and resins. This in turn means that most of the gum is not biodegradable. It should also be noted that the first chewing gum made from natural latex, known as chicle, and it is still the basis for the production of some high-end brands of chewing gum.
Aspirin has long established itself as one of the most reliable and safe products. Each year, several billion used aspirin to get rid of a headache from the heat, and the drug is taken as a preventive method for dealing with cardio - vascular diseases. Aspirin in combination with a chemical salicin and give the effect of pain relief. However, the production of aspirin starts from benzene and hydrocarbon, which are derived from petroleum.
14. Socks and tights
Millions of modern women wear nylon pantyhose for comfort and to meet the fashion trends. Decades ago, women wore only nylon stockings, which received its spread during the Second World War. Moreover, women did not stop the fact that nylon was obtained in 1935, the chemist Wallace Carothers (Wallace Carothers) and is a thermoplastic derived from oil. Today, nylon is used in the manufacture of a huge number of things, ranging from dishwasher detergents and finishing with parachutes.
15. The oil bath as a remedy for arthritis
Azerbaijan annually produces millions of barrels of oil. In the city of Naftalan she found an unusual application - here people take oil bath.
The purpose of these procedures - the fight against arthritis and joint pain. This method with time is becoming more and more adherents.
16. Vodka from oil?
A number of related medical industry companies used to prepare vodka rubbing alcohol, which is made from petroleum products - ethylene. The story of that vodka is made from crude oil, it has the real implications. By the way, the "oil" rubbing alcohol used in the production of pharmaceutical tinctures.
Officially making vodka from rubbing alcohol is forbidden, but who cares !? And in some regions of vodka and did make the hydrolysis alcohol produced from wood.
But such a use of oil we categorically do not endorse. That's right, comrades?
And there are persistent rumors that the artificial black caviar is made from oil. This is also from the category of folk tales, but a long time ago, when she was only trying to do, there seems to be used proteins from crude oil, and that this is not confirmed.
But this was not commercially - sold us eggs from algae, fish gelatin and other food products.
I used to eat it - not so very bad if fresh.
We sold it in small plastic jars - like cheese Amber (80 years).