Crowns and monarchs

Crown - in Latin means wreath.
This term is derived from a wreath, which in ancient Greece and then in Rome set up on the head especially distinguished citizens.





Almost equal to the gods
The winner of the Olympic Games received a wreath of olive branches, and poetry competitions in honor of Apollo - bay (hence the word "winner"). Oak wreath was a sign of special protection of Zeus, his generals and rulers were awarded. In the second half of the V century BC. e., when finished Greco-Persian Wars, they won the Greek cities quickly began to prosper and have the opportunity to make distinctions, with which were wreaths of "eternal" material - gold. Massive wreath with golden oak leaves was found during excavations presumably royal tombs in the capital of ancient Macedonia, the city of Ega. It is believed that it belonged to Philip II, father of Alexander the Great. The Greeks believed that the dead for a virtuous life, like the heroes can get into the society of the gods. Therefore the grave often put a wreath, who testified about the merits of the deceased, as well as his victory in the battle, which the Greeks likened life.




Ancient Greece II century BC Golden Wreath

Five of the world tree
Very rarely, archaeologists can not locate the burial, which would not be managed for a while robbers. One of the rarest of exceptions - seven tombs excavated in 1979 by a Soviet expedition Victor Sarianidi in Afghanistan on a hill Tilla Tepe. The richest of them belonged to a girl of noble birth. The tomb was found a lot of gold objects: a scepter, necklace, bracelets, coins. The girl's head was decorated with a golden crown, five teeth, which are in the form of trees with flowers and birds. They seem to refer back to the ancient Aryan myth of the five World Tree - four on the sides of light and one in the middle. The girl apparently belonged to the nomadic Yuezhi people, who in the II century BC. e. was supplanted by the Huns from the north-west frontier of China to Central Asia. In the I century on the territory of the Greco-Bactrian there "five lands" Yuezhi, who later formed the Kushan state. Maybe she was the queen of one of the "five possessions».



Central Asia I century BC Crown Yuezhi

From Charlemagne to Napoleon
Was made when the so-called iron crown Longobardians unknown, most likely between V and VIII eyelids. One thing is for sure - after the Lombards conquered northern part of Italy, all their kings were crowned exactly it. Charlemagne, capturing the kingdom of the Lombards, also assumed the iron crown. In fact, it gold with precious stones and cloisonne enamel, iron in it only the inner hoop. According to legend, he forged from a nail - one of those that was pierced on the cross, the Savior's body. However, according to modern scholars, hoop nothing to do with the sacred relics has not, it simply reinforced the structure, since gold is too soft metal. None of the crown in the world served by purpose as long as the crown of the Lombards. Starting from the X century it crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, which includes Northern Italy. In 1805, banished from Italy imperial Habsburg dynasty, she wanted to be crowned Napoleon Bonaparte. Putting on the iron crown, he declared: "God gave it to me - and woe to anyone who touches it." Now the crown is stored in the main cathedral of the Italian city of Monza.



Italy V-VIII century iron crown of the Lombards

Gift Dame
Tradition states that in 1001 during the coronation of the first Hungarian king, Saint Stephen (Stephen) I, granted him by Pope raised crown on himself and presented it to the Virgin Mary, concluding thus the divine contract between her and the crown. From that moment Our Lady was not only a patron saint, and the Queen of Hungary. In fact, the crown was made in the XII century by order of King Béla III, who was educated at Constantinople yard. Its top is decorated with an icon of Christ Pantocrator, it is inserted into a cross, which until the XVII century was a direct, but then as a result of some manipulation appeared bent. On rims are the images of saints and portraits of the Byzantine emperors. Crown of St. Stephen's was, so to speak, more important than the king himself. In particular, in most other countries, the heir became monarch immediately after the death of the ruler and the coronation was a symbolic act, in Hungary, he received power only after hoisting upon his brow the crown of St. Stephen. But the king could touch the relics, only two - the major-domo and Archbishop Esztergom. Crown is a symbol of supreme power in Hungary today, however, is no longer the royal and state. In 2000, she took pride of place in the building of the Hungarian parliament.

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