In 1943, in the midst of the fighting on the fronts of the Great Patriotic War, begins to form a new direction in the creative activity of the design team, led by SV Ilyushin, which became over time one of the key - the creation of passenger aircraft.
12 photos and text (much) here: wikipedia, airliner
1.Geroy Socialist Labour, Major General, Ilyushin aircraft engineer Sergei Vladimirovich (1894-1977) photo 1942
SV Ilyushin starts on its own initiative to design a passenger plane with the parameters and characteristics, which, he believed, would best meet the requirements of the post-war development of the CAF.
During this period, the establishment of new passenger planes are formed two main directions. Supporters of the first direction sought to create a new passenger aircraft, recasting proven to operate medium and heavy bombers (the Boeing B-29, Convair B-24 "Liberator" Avro "Lancaster", etc.).
2. Boeing B-29 «Superfortress» - «Flying Fortress» US 1941-42
Creating a passenger aircraft on the basis of design bomber reduces the time and cost of its development, but the experience of the post-war operation of passenger aircraft showed their relatively low economic efficiency, and in the first post-war years, these machines have been removed from production.
Another way to chose SV Ilyushin. He put the collective complex technical problem of creating a new airplane greater capacity, speed and range: the whole process of designing the Il-12 was subordinated to solve practical problems of equipment of the national economy modern and sophisticated means of transport, designed for wide use for a long time, safe and high
economical, compatible with the existing airports and ground handling.
These figures are formed in the design office in the course of the project aircraft
In a first embodiment, the IL-12 was supposed to install four high-altitude engine M-88B. Engine M-88B retained the nominal power of 735 kW (1000 hp..) To an altitude of 7300 m, and performed well in long flight combat bombers IL-4 engines M-88B.
3. IL-4 long-range bomber ADD. USSR, 1940
The crew and passengers of the plane were placed in an airtight fuselage ventilation type, charging is carried bleed air from the engines driving centrifugal compressors M-88B. In terms of comfort, the sending passengers and installation step seat Il-12 passenger seats meet modern first class.
Driving chassis front support provided plane Il-12, a higher level of security of the critical phases of flight such as take-off and landing, and to provide a high passenger comfort.
Project chetyrehdvigatelnogo variant IL-12 SV Ilyushin approved the January 4, 1944 g, was told about it to Stalin. Ilyushin initiative was supported, the creation of IL-12 is approved.
4. Stalin (Dzhugashvili) Stalin, People's Commissar of Defense, the Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) (1878-1953) 1942 photo
In March 1944, the layout and general appearance has twin-engine variant of IL-12 with diesel engines ACh-31 were approved by the Ilyushin
For the first time in the world in the plane Il-12 anti-icing system included direct heating plating bow wing of the exhaust gases in a mixture with the outside air.
The first flight of IL-12 with diesel engines ACh-31 on 15 August 1945
5. Employees have experienced EDO IL-12 AH-31 engines. In the center - SV Ilyushin
Several pilots flying VK Kokkinaki and KK Kokkinaki the program factory tests revealed the need for a large volume and long-lasting finishing experienced engine AH-31
6. testers pilots, veterans, Heroes of the Soviet Union - Vladimir (1904-1985) and Konstantin (1910-1990) Kokkinaki.
In this situation, SV Ilyushin took an important decision - to replace, even at the expense of some tehnichesknm flight data of the aircraft, especially its flight range, diesel engines are more reliable and driven, have significantly greater resources, petrol engines.
7. IL-12 with air-cooled engines AL-82FN to takeoff power 1360 kW (1850 hp..),
State tests of IL-12 have passed from July 1 to September 16, 1946.
August 18, 1946, the first public demonstration of the aircraft in the air parade in Tushino.
October 21, 1946 order was issued the Ministry of Aviation Industry of the start of IL-12 into production at the Moscow plant № 30.
August 1, 1947, the first cargo flight modification of IL-12T, designed for a payload of 3,000 kg.
8. IL -12 T
August 29, 1948 began testing an airborne vehicle variant IL-12D. It was designed to carry 38 paratroopers, which had folding seats along the sides. The aircraft was fitted for the transport of 3700 kg of cargo or 27 wounded on stretchers. Also, IL-12D was designed for medium-duty towing gliders. In addition to the cargo door on the right side, in the middle of the cargo compartment hatches for added cargo dropping desantiruemye cargo.
In the course of the whole complex of the GOP on the new plane were passed different airways of the Soviet Union, including made a nonstop flight Moscow - Tashkent range of 2820 km. Testers insure that the IL-12 not only work with long concreted runway, which was then in the Soviet Union could boast only a few airports, but also with common fringes of limited size, had very different coverage. It was also proved the suitability of the aircraft for operation at high altitudes, which flew through the ridges of the Caucasus and the mountain ranges of Central Asia up to 6500 meters, as well as take off from high-altitude airport in Yerevan.
May 1, 1947 in Moscow, the first public display of IL-12. Vnukovo pilots held their planes in formation over Red Square during the air show. In June, we began regular flights of IL-12 with the passengers on board the Aeroflot air lines, and by the end of the year, these machines operated by many regional offices GVF.
Since 1948, the Il-12 came on the international routes. The first was a line Moscow - Sofia. IL-12 began flying regularly to Berlin, Belgrade, Budapest, Bucharest, Warsaw, Vienna, Kabul, Prague, Tehran, Stockholm, Helsinki, Ulaanbaatar and Hami (Western China). August 2, 1954 flight of IL-12 (commander V.K.Zamula) opened the passenger line Moscow-Paris.
10. IL -12 Czechoslovak company CSA. 1950s
IL-12 is actively used in the Arctic and Antarctic. Unique operation, which was led A.Girko, held in March - April 1950, two IL-12D Polaris aircraft, operated by a crew A.Haritoshkina and B. homeland, was towed from the Chkalovsky airfield near Moscow to the North Pole two cargo glider C-25, bringing on top of the planet's first assault of this kind.
October 24, 1958 a plane with tail number USSR-N-440, which control instructions crew V.M.Petrova first passed over the South Pole. But the uniqueness of the event was not just that. Route-Peace Pole - McMurdo - Peaceful length of about 7,000 km was able to pass only one landing.
11. The crew of the IL -12 Soviet H-440 at the Antarctic airport "Alasheva Bay." 1958
Release of IL-12E in the Armed Forces began in 1948, when parades g.No IL-12 looked very good, the increased needs of the Armed Forces he is satisfied far from complete. Typically, the board took no more than 20 parachutists. He practiced as transportation of various supplies and light artillery, the latter brought to the landing only landing way. With such a load of IL-12 could pass 600-700 km in the rear of a potential enemy, and then return to its base. But what is needed armada of machines to land in Western Europe at least Airborne Division! In addition, the military would like to deliver by air not only personnel and artillery, and light armored vehicles, and the most that was capable of IL-12 is a miniature self-propelled carriage SAU-57.
Service Il-12 transport and landing and military transport aviation was short-lived. Removal of IL-12 with weapons BTA did not end his career in the Soviet Army. A small number of cars continued to serve in various auxiliary units. In 1960, almost all of them were concentrated in the 666th Training Regiment (ALM) Balashov flight school at the airport Rtishchevo.
12. Polk Il-12T was taxiing to the start. Tula Regiment BTA. 1954
On the main routes of Aeroflot IL-12 worked until the beginning of mass deliveries of IL-14. They were then transferred to regional and local lines, which, for maximum effectiveness, flew in the arrangement to 32 passengers. In some parts of the Il-12 served until the early 1970s.