The invention of photography has allowed mankind to document many important moments of recent history. Some pictures show how far we have come as a species, while others are not allowed to forget our shame.
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1. The last public execution by guillotine, 1939.
While it may seem that public executions were in the distant past, it is not. Many countries still regularly decapitated criminals in public, but certainly less than a hundred years ago.
In the picture above we can see the guillotine. The man, who is about to be executed - Eugen Weidmann, who was a robber and a murderer, until he was caught and sentenced to death. June 17 1939, the year to look at the bloody spectacle of a crowd gathered.
Why do people needed to look at such an event? At the time, the government used public executions to show an example of good citizens. Parents can bring their children with them to see the penalty, and to tell them something like, "Look at what happens to people who break the law!". Other people come to have fun. We go to the zoo or sports, and the French went to look for the pleasure of a public beheading.
Public executions now a thing of the past. The death penalty in many countries still exists, but is done behind closed doors after the verdict. Times have indeed changed - public executions no longer serve as a "lesson" and are considered to be barbaric.
With regard to the guillotine, it was used until 1977, the year, while in France the death penalty. Now, these devices are only in museums.
2. Nagasaki 20 minutes after the explosion of a bomb in 1945.
August 9, 1945, the year the United States dropped on the Japanese city of Nagasaki atomic bomb codenamed "Fat Man" - an explosion killed about 40 thousand people, thousands more died later from burns and radiation sickness. It was hell - thousands of people lay dead or wounded under the rubble., The city was completely destroyed.
Photo is impressive, even if you do not know what it was made 20 minutes after the explosion - in the air still hangs a huge mushroom cloud. On the right picture you can see how that happened, watching three people. Imagine what was going on in the minds of eyewitnesses of such a tragedy, it is impossible.
3. Sunset on Mars in 2005.
If you do not know exactly, we can not even understand that this decline occurred not on our own planet. This is actually a Martian sunset, very similar to the Earth, a kind of hint that other worlds could be strangely familiar.
This incredible image was taken rover «Spirit»: The sun sets over the Gusev Crater. The rover not only make beautiful images, his main task was to study the Martian atmosphere, as well as ice and dust clouds.
The reddish color due to the presence of suspended in the rarefied atmosphere of small particles, but the picture has a bluish tinge because of the light-scattering dust. Also worth noting is that the sun compared to the view from the Earth seems less because the red planet is farther from the Sun than our own.
4. The fifth Solvay conference in 1927.
On the world-renowned Solvay Conferences best scientists of the world to discuss new discoveries from the field of quantum physics. All in the photographs famous scientists lived at one time, but that they are gathered in one place - a very rare case.
Six people on the right in the back row - Erwin Schrödinger, known for his work in quantum theory. It was he who formulated the Schrödinger equation for the wave mechanics. It is also known for formulated in 1935 by the famous paradox, known as "Schrödinger's cat". He shared the Nobel Prize with the scientist Paul Dirac.
The first on the right in the middle row - Niels Bohr, member of the infamous Manhattan Project, in which the atomic bomb was created. It was the first person could prove that the energy levels in the atoms are quantized - this means that the electrons can "jump" from one energy level to another. Because of its contribution to science, Bohr considered one of the founders of modern physics.
Third from left in the front row - Marie Curie. She coined the term "radioactivity" and was the first woman to win the Nobel Prize. She was also one of the very few people who have received the award in two disciplines - chemistry and physics.
Fifth from right in the front row - Albert Einstein. He played a central role in the creation of quantum theory, as developed the general theory of relativity, he also is known for the equation E = mc2. Because of his great contribution to modern physics the name "Einstein" is now a synonym for the word "genius».
Other well-known personalities, which can be seen in the photo - is Werner Heisenberg and Peter Debye, strangely like Hitler. Bottom line: this conference is largely created a platform, upon which all modern physics.
5. Alternative views of Tiananmen Square in 1989.
The protests in Tiananmen Square that took place in 1989, are perhaps one of the most significant events in the history of XX-th century. Although all seen photos of tanks, this image gives us a completely different point of view, it makes the look at the events in a new way.
We see that the famous Tank Man carries in the hands of the food - it is not a freedom fighter, who specially came to the area to defend his position, he was an ordinary guy who just something went about their business.
To the right are seen approaching tanks, which eventually stop. While all this is happening, we can see how from the area in fear of civilians fleeing. But one person who does not at first sight different from the other, decides to stay in place. This shows that you or someone else can perform incredible feats, if you really want to.
6. Burning Monk, 1963.
This shocking pictures - monk Quang Duc, who set fire to themselves live on a busy road intersection in Saigon in 1963. He died in a protest against the persecution of Buddhists by the government of South Vietnam.
Mode has made life very difficult for Buddhists: they were forbidden to raise its traditional flag, to talk about their beliefs and engage in spiritual exercises. Therefore, the Buddhists decided to send a message to the authorities.
Quang Duc got out of the car near the embassy of Cambodia, accompanied by two other monks. He sat quietly in the traditional posture for meditation, while one monk doused it with gasoline from head to toe. And when another monk struck a match and set fire to it, Quang Duc did not even flinch. Passers-by were mostly stunned, but some still stood and began to pray, while the monk burned alive.
The protest did not go unnoticed - picture a few hours appeared on the front pages of newspapers around the world. According to US President John F. Kennedy, no news from the occupied territory has not caused so much emotion, like this one.
7. How was signed the Treaty of Versailles, 1919.
The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties that formally terminated the First World War, and even peace treaties - is generally good, but this was signed out of bitterness and revenge, instead of logically.
The Treaty of Versailles had placed full responsibility for the war in Germany, which is why the country had to pay insanely high repair (which is reflected in the country's economy before the 2010 year). At the beginning of XX-th century, it destroyed the German economy, forcing the people to restore power at any cost, and, ultimately, the treaty created the preconditions for the Second World War.
However, people were eager to agreement was signed: on photos you can see how they pull the neck to at least a glimpse senior military officials on his way to the office to sign to witness the historic event.
8. Tenzing Norgay on the summit of Mount Everest in 1953.
People always tend to win. No matter what has to fight - with the armies, entire empires, or even nature itself. This desire to learn more and constantly surpass themselves led to incredible feats and accomplishments. The story about the people, the first to climb the highest peak in the world, is no exception - this feat was the result of determination and willpower.
The man in the photo - Tenzing Norgay. May 29, 1953, the year he and his companion, the New Zealander Edmund Hillary became the first to reach the summit of Everest. They managed to conquer the highest mountain in the world in just three days before the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II, as the world learned about it on the morning of the coronation.
At the top of the climbers spent only about a quarter of an hour. Hillary Tenzing made famous photo with an ice pick, but when Tenzing wanted to photograph him, too, the New Zealander refused. They made a few more photos as evidence, and then began a slow descent back to a dangerous civilization.
9. Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (Ultradeep space "Hubble") - a small region of space, made a telescope "Hubble" in the year 2003.
In 2003, the telescope "Hubble" has given us a glimpse into the depths of space. Scientists have sent him to the lens portion of the space where they expect little to be found. After processing the slides, they realized that much wrong - the picture was a lot of previously unknown objects and phenomena.
Due to this picture became possible to observe very faint galaxies in the universe, the study of which scientists have gone and still go away for many years. These galaxies are so far away from us that the earlier we were not even aware of their existence.
Photo may have helped mankind to perceive itself as a whole, go beyond borders, races and nationalities. It made us realize how small and fragile our planet really is. There is also the opposite view: that the universe in all its splendor and wonderful diversity, and there we are - the people part of it.
In the words of Douglas Adams: "The universe is huge. You just will not believe how it is breathtakingly high. You may think that the pharmacy is located very far away from you, but the universe is - like peanuts. "
10. Next on the moon in 1969.
July 20, 1969, the year the mankind has left its mark not the first in the world: astronaut Neil Armstrong made history as the first man to walk on the moon. It is a feat that is impossible to forget.
The historic event was broadcast on all the television screens of the world, when Armstrong spoke his famous words: "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind».
Armstrong and fellow astronaut Buzz Aldrin, spent the next few hours, collecting samples, and the third team member Michael Collins remained in the command module. After that, "Apollo 11" safely returned to Earth July 24, 1969-year.
The success of the mission meant that the United States won the space race and fulfill the promise of Kennedy, who in 1961 said that the United States put a man on the moon by the end of the decade.
On the moon there is no wind, so the track will remain there for many millions of years.