The Great Pyramid is one of the ancient Seven Wonders of the World and is located on the Giza Plateau. It is believed that it was built as the tomb of Khufu, known to the Greeks as Cheops. Pyramid wraps a lot of variety of myths and legends of the truth of which we will try to understand the post. Here are the known facts:
1. The Great Pyramid is the largest pyramid in the world;
2. Pyramid perfectly oriented to the cardinal;
3. built of carefully fitted stone blocks in the junction between which it is impossible to insert a knife blade;
4. Sami blocks that built the pyramid, cut in the quarry and brought over many hundreds of kilometers from the pyramids;
5. Technology built the pyramid so perfect that neither before nor after anything similar or comparable in complexity of construction in ancient Egypt has been built;
6. Only in the late 19th century, mankind has been able to build a structure above the pyramid - the Eiffel Tower in Paris;
7. In the pyramid there is no label at all, let alone labels indicating that it belongs to Cheops;
8. It is foolish to think that such a great work could do for the sake of one person even if the king;
9. From the above it follows that the pyramid could be constructed only unknown advanced civilization, not the slaves of ancient Egypt;
So, there are no real facts - all these myths.
1. The Great Pyramid of Cholula (Mexico), though lower than the great pyramid of Cheops, but it is much larger in terms of volume - 4.45mln.kub.m. against 2.58mln. cbm
2. The error of the orientation of the pyramid to the cardinal was measured in the 19th century and is 5 arc-minutes and 30 seconds. This is a high precision, but it is not ideal.
3. In the junction of the external and internal facing of the pyramid is really impossible to insert a knife blade. But this applies only to the lining itself is a pyramid built of very roughly hewn blocks of various sizes.
4. Pyramid constructed of relatively soft limestone from quarries in the vicinity of the pyramids. More hard limestone cladding of external faces of the pyramid were taken from the other bank of the Nile from quarries upstream at a distance of 13-17 km. But the granite that was used for the floors and facing one of the chambers of the pyramid (the chamber of the King), was carried down the Nile from Aswan to Giza at a distance of over 700 km. But this is only a few hundredths of a percent of the total blocks pyramid.
5. Technology of construction of the pyramid is perfect, but only for the time. The pyramids were built before and after the Great Pyramid, and similar-size, though smaller. Stone building technology has continued to evolve and after the era of the pyramids. If you open the Guinness Book of Records under monumental structures, it will not find information about the pyramid of Cheops. But there are three other achievements of ancient Egypt unsurpassed to this day - the largest obelisk from a single monolithic stone weighing 455 tons and a height of 36 meters (Stone Needle height of 12 floors), the biggest unfinished obelisk of cast stone (left in the quarry) - height 42mmetra , the weight of 1168 tons, and finally, the highest load-bearing pillars in the history of mankind - columns of the Temple of Amun at Karnak 21 meters.
6. At the end of the 13th century and early 14th century in the medieval spiers of Gothic cathedrals rose above the pyramid of Cheops. Meanwhile, construction of the Gothic cathedral with engineering and architectural point of view it is much more difficult to order the construction of the pyramids.
7. There are several dozen inscriptions and technical notes found Weise and Perring in 1837 in the 4 upper discharge chamber of the Cheops pyramid in previously inaccessible locations. Inscriptions are made on the basis of the red ocher paint, and contain numerous references to the name of the Pharaoh Khufu (Cheops) in cartouches.
8. The grand funerary complex of the first emperor Qin Shi Huang unified China (3rd century BC) in labor costs to build a lot more than the whole complex of Khufu, including except for the Great Pyramid of upper and lower temples, ceremonial roads and other buildings. This famous terrakatovaya army - over 8000 carefully made and painted statues (increasing from 170 cm to 2 meters) soldiers, officers, generals, musicians, officials, each with an individual person and to the weapons and tools, chariots, statues of horses with silver and gold trim harness, is out of the funeral complex Shi Huang. Center funeral complex truncated pyramid whose base is also much larger pyramid of Cheops. The wall surrounding the complex, longer than 6 km. On the construction were employed according to Chinese annals to 700 thousand. Man. Poor Cheops on this scale could not even dream of.
9. Pyramid of Cheops built not Atlanta, not aliens, and, of course, is not exactly slaves. Construction of working artisans and peasants of ancient Egypt, the pharaoh his subjects. Today we know the history of the construction of the pyramids - from brick mastabas to the first stone step pyramid, and from them to the true pyramids. Each step of this evolution, the growth of the size of the pyramids construction technology known archaeologists and historians of ancient Egypt. Great Pyramid did not appear out of nowhere.
However, Khufu was not the builder of the great pyramid. His father Sneferu built the three pyramids - at Meidum, unique the broken pyramid and the famous pink. Each successive one was larger than the previous, the last two have comparable in size to the Great Pyramid and better preserved it. The total amount of these pyramids greatly exceeds the volume of the Great Pyramid.
Looking at the Great Pyramid today, we realize that this is not so much a monument to the ambitions of the pharaoh, his concern for their eternal life after death, and a grand monument to human ingenuity and courage of the architect, created by the labor of thousands of anonymous builders four thousand and a half years ago, when far mammoths still roamed the north, and in Europe people were still living in the Stone Age.
Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacan. Something like this might look like a pyramid of Cholula.
Lower-preserved part of the external cladding of the Great Pyramid of Khufu. Right - granite cladding of the inner chamber (chambers of the King).
Blocks of the pyramid of Khufu. Pay attention to the different size and fairly rough treatment of surfaces.