History of stationery

In British schools want to switch completely to electronic diaries: even the students of junior classes have learned to use a special pen to erase ink and write on top of the necessary estimates exhibited a teacher. In this ten - story office supplies.

10th place: Probably the most distant ancestor of pencil and pen was a firebrand from the fire - yet it drew cave paintings. And already the first decorated stationery were bars - wedges for writing on wet clay, they were used in ancient Assyria. The Greeks and Romans used the stylus - sharpened sticks.

9th place: The famous goose feather. Typically, in preparation for writing pen purified in the hot sand, cut and sharpened. Of course, the goose feathers had drawbacks: First, they are terrible creaking, and secondly, goose wing writing is good only 2-3 pen. Of course, I was still chalk, but you can not write with chalk on white paper.

8th place: At the end of the XVIII century was created metal pen. Servant of Aachen Mayor Jansen is so concerned about his master that made the pen of steel. However, it did not have in the middle of the slot, so drizzling and write without pressure. Then these feathers were made of gold and silver.

7th place: The first description of pencil graphite is found in the treatise about minerals written in 1565 Graphite (if it was a solid piece) as the ore was mined, cut to the plate, polished and then sawn on sticks and inserted into a tube of wood or cane.

6th: The first real pencil. The shepherds grazing flocks around the lake Borrowdale in Britain have long noticed that the wool of their sheep is black, if they rub on the local rock. As reported by local scientists, they decided that in Borrowdale come to the surface deposits of lead, or "black stone". Locals immediately abandoned the sheep and began to make supplies for the letters and called "black stones". In Turkic: black - a "penalty" and a stone - "das».

5th place: Put bars of black stone (graphite) in a wooden sheath suggested the French chemist Nicolas Conte in the XVIII century - it saves actually graphite. In addition, it was found that the production of such a method, the pencil writes even better.

4th place: Aristocrats usually used a silver pin. It is a funny thing. Dark gray feature of this pin turns brown during oxidation, and delete that line was impossible. Silver pin used da Vinci.

3rd place: The first ballpoint pen. In fact, it was invented for the needs of military aviation (at the height of a handle not flow ink), but producers soon realized that this is a real revolution. When in 1945 the first batch of ballpoint pens went on sale in New York, the authorities had put a cordon of several hundred police - such was the queue. The day was able to sell 10 thousand. Handles, although cost is not cheap novelty - as the American industrial worker was getting 8 hours.

Place 2: Eraser. First, to erase the written use breadcrumbs. When Latin America brought the first rubber, it turned out that it erases the better, and in 1770 the Englishman Joseph Priestley made the first real eraser. It remained to take the final step, but it came with a hitch - only in 1858 the American Hyman Lipman guessed release a pencil with an eraser on the end.

1st place: the first in the history of mankind pen was invented in ancient Egpite. This device for writing was found in the tomb of Tutankhamun: copper handle with inserted in her sharpened lead tube; inside the tube was a reed, is filled with ink, which leaked on Steblin fibers accumulate on the pointed end and the letter left a clear mark on the papyrus.


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