Past. Present. Future.
In physics they are one and the same. But I, you and everyone else time moves in one direction: from expectations through the senses into memory
. This linearity is called the arrow of time, and some physicists believe that it moves this way only because of the fact that humans and other creatures with the same nervous system see this movement.Question about arrow (axis) of time a long time.
For clarity I should say that the question is not whether there is a time, and in what direction it moves. Many physicists believe that it occurs when tiny particles individually obey the strange rules of quantum mechanics, begin to interact and to Express such properties, which can be explained with classical physics.
But today in the journal Annalen der Physik a, Einstein published his landmark articles on General and special theory of relativity, published an article of two scientists who claim that gravity isn't enough to make all objects in the universe move in the same direction: past — present — future
. In their view, the arrow of time arises from the observers
This brings us back to one of the most important problems in physics, namely, in the connection of quantum and classical mechanics
. In quantum mechanics particles can have a superposition. That is, one electron can exist in either of two places, and no one can define this place for sure until I see it. Where to find the electron is determined by probability. And checked experimentally.
But the rules change when the electrons enter the interaction with many objects, say, a group of air molecules, or dekoriruyut, turning to such things as dust particles, airplanes or baseballs. Here comes into its own classical mechanics
and gravity becomes important. "The position of the electron of each atom is controlled by the probability," says a physicist at the University of California at Berkeley Yasunori Nomura (Nomura Yasunori). But when they interact with larger objects, or turn into things like baseball, these individual probabilities are combined, and the chances of saving a superposition of all combinations of electrons decrease. That's why we never see how the ball disappears from gloves field player on the left flank and at the same time flies to the top of the rod.This time when elementary particle physics merges with classical mechanics, is called decoherence.
From the point of view of physics, it was at this point the direction of time becomes mathematically important. Therefore, most physicists believe that the time axis emerges from decoherence.The most prominent theory of decoherence, is the equation Wheeler-DeWitt.
It appeared in 1965, when a physicist named John Wheeler (John Wheeler) from-for flight delays was forced to sit at the airport in North Carolina. To kill time, he offered to meet my colleague Bryce DeWitt (Bryce DeWitt). When they met, they did what physicists usually do: talked about theory and playing with numbers. This pair came up with the equation which, in the opinion of Wheeler, erased all the boundaries between quantum and classical mechanics (DeWitt, on this account had doubts).
This theory is imperfect. But it's important, and most physicists think it is an important tool for understanding the oddities that lie at the basis of the so-called decoherence and quantum gravity.
And that's where the weirdness becomes more. The equation of the Wheeler-DeWitt does not include a time variable, which in itself is not strange. Time is something that cannot be measured by itself. In physics it is measured as the ratio between the location of the object... in time. And it's weird. But it creates the framework for binding the universe together.
But scientists who wrote the article in Annalen der Physik, saying that in the equation Wheeler-DeWitt effect of gravity begins to operate too slowly to account for it in the universal time axis.
"If you look at the examples and do the calculations, it turns out that the equation doesn't explain how there is a direction of time," says co-author of this work, the great biologist and scholar Robert Lanza (Robert Lanza).(Lanza created the theory of biocentrism claim that space and time this build that occur because of biological sensory limitations.)
In other words, these brisk quantum particles should be able to keep its property of superposition, before start to operate the gravity. For example, if gravity is too weak to keep the interaction between the molecules, which dekoriruyut into something more, so she is unable to make them move in the same direction along the time axis.
If these calculations are not confirmed, it remains an observer, that is us. Time is moving, because the people in the biological, neurological and philosophically feel it is so and not otherwise.
It's such a large-scale version of the thought experiment with schrödinger's cat. Remote corner of the universe can move the future into the past. But in that moment when the person sends back the telescope, time begins to match the flow past and the future.
"In his works on relativity, Einstein shows that time is relative to the observer, says Lanza. — We are in the study go further, claiming that the observer in fact creates it."
In fact, this theory is not new. Italian physicist Carlo friend barb. (Carlo Rovelli) wrote about it in his paper published last year in the open on the physics website ArXiv. In addition, it is not without flaws. Nomura selects one of them. How to install, is it really in the idea of "time observer"?
"The answer depends on whether the concept of time to define mathematically, not including in this system of observers," he says.
The authors argue that subtract the observer from the equation is impossible, because the equations the default account for and analyze people.
According to Nomura, the authors also did not take into account the fact that the universe exists in the environment, called space-time continuum.
"So when we're talking about space-time, we are talking about decoherence system."
He never goes too far and does not claim that the authors are wrong because physics is still incomplete science. However, Nomura does not agree with the conclusions that the authors make on the basis of their calculations.
And all interpretations in physics is relative — like time. published
Author: Nick Stockton (Nick Stockton)
Also interesting: Quantum physics and human consciousness A long time
P. S. And remember, just changing your mind — together we change the world! ©