Most of the animals living in freedom, engaged in the eternal task of its own survival and procreation
. The struggle for existence absorbs all forces and time. So-headed beast of "seven spans in a forehead" and a modest one invertebrate with a nervous ganglion, the problem of boredom does not arise. Even if a lion pride in the African Savannah, all day is in noble idleness, boredom is not called, rather Regal indolence.
Lionesses know that at dusk they go hunting, while the males "will continue Duma" about the retention of power. And if the lionesses don't produce anything, the lions will have to connect to the hunt. But it is necessary to lock the lion cage of the zoo and to deprive him of the struggle for a piece of meat and for the female as it may cause boredom.In the absence of a struggle for existence of animals can be divided into two groups:
- those who can easily get bored and depressed,
- and those sloth in a confined space is not at all depressing.
Cuban cockroach Blaberus sp. the stick insects or Phasmatodea in a good insectary unlikely to complain of destiny. The same can be said about fish in a nice aquarium, and hundreds of thousands of other species, representatives of which are kept in artificial conditions. In zoos, there is food and shelter and no predators, what more could you want? Even a relatively highly developed being the white-tailed eagle Haliaeetus albicilla makes no claims having on the table every day fish or meat.
In the years of work in the far East for more than a month I contained the house of the eagle, which, having no obvious damage to the wings, not fly. Predator — I dubbed him, Gosha — lived in the summer kitchen and rejoiced daily fish, which he got without any effort. Our life together with a white interrupted from-for visit of the photographer who came to photograph the bird, but something so Goshka didn't like that he ran up and flew away. I had to kick him out to pasture in the hospital, but to fly anywhere eagle was not going to.
White-tailed eagle named Gosha. More than a month he lived in the summer kitchen and enjoyed the food which was given to him without work and worries. Photo By The Author.
Now look in the dull eyes of the leopard the whole day walking along the glass or metal wall of the enclosure at the zoo. The beast is suffering from boredom. The same can be said about wolves, Martens and many other animals that nature has given an inquiring mind. If this tool designed for solving diverse tasks of adjusting to a complex world, is left without "food" is idle, the animal can wither and sicken.
The monkey living in a zoo, looks bored. Photo By Vladimir Romanovsky.
The staff of the zoos of this problem are well known. In good seocentro it seeks to solve, providing Pets with toys and shells, thus attempting to recreate the elements of a complex natural environment, where it would be something to think about.Animals in zoos and amuse themselves as they can.
Chimpanzees and orangutans often spit in visitors, amused observation of how people are Bouncing off the cage. Pastime of many animals becomes begging for treats from visitors. Constant snacking — their favorite entertainment.
Waiting for treats! Photo By Vladimir Romanovsky.
Known cases when some animals, like bears, died from overeating.
Zoo animals have fun as they can. Photo By Vladimir Romanovsky.
Boredom and lack of normal sexual partner in captivity
animals are forced to invent extravagant ways for splashing out unspent energy. They can use for lovemaking items available in the cage. If there's a neighbor of another species, then it will probably be shown sexual interest. And same-sex love flourishes. A special study of this question, covering 2000 species of animals found instances of homosexual, 20% of them.
The practice of sheep farming shows that every sixth sheep sex do not care. British biologist Augustus brown cites the case of a Humboldt penguin Spheniscus humboldti, which occurred in one of the German zoos. The group of males there have settled females in the hope to improve their orientation. But the males to fight off interest to the fair sex, in unison pretended to be already hatching the eggs with daddy. The quality of the eggs they used stones.If absolutely no entertainment, animals begin to pay attention to your body.
So, some of the larger parrots pull out the feathers and soon become glabrous. More than harmless fun — an invention of unusual movements. For example, whiling away the time, chimpanzees Pan troglodytes rolled from side to side, so moving around the cage. Constant movement on the cell peculiar to many animals, so the simulated bypass of their hunting grounds in nature and is stored. There is a deeper meaning — initially, the animals are very mobile.
Moving and then on the cage, birds maintain their physical form. Photo By Vladimir Romanovsky.
The torment of boredom in some way is a sign of high intelligence.
In nature, these animals are not used as food is the same, but always looking for something new, especially if food became scarce. This approach is manifested not only in search of "daily bread", but in all other aspects of life. For example, magpies boldly used in the construction of nests of wire and many other products of human civilization.
Feathered bored once! The age-old task of building the nest and feeding the Chicks. Swallow the village. Photo By Vasily Vishnevskiy.
Beggar — black kite Milvus migrans cannot boast of much success as a predator, so it eats everything that comes. In addition, it is used to haul in the house much of what is bad. I once climbed to the nest of a predator — then there just was not: rags, cartons of cigarettes, paper scraps, fish bones.
In contrast, the interior of the nest of the Goshawk Accipiter gentilis is a much more successful hunter — breathing aristocracy. For decoration, and perhaps to deter parasites, this bird puts in the tray green branches.
The same love of the green branches in the nest exhibit predators — honey Buzzards Pernis apivorus. These species are not offended in vivid human waste. They live, respecting their traditions.
The black woodpecker. Photo By Vasily Vishnevskiy.
Specializing in the collection of fodder from tree trunks, the nuthatch Sitta europaea adapted to the wandering bark better than all the birds of the poison dart frog. He is the only one allowed to walk around the barrels upside down, while a fair amount of curiosity and ingenuity. The bird will not miss the food in unconventional places.
In my youth I was satisfied with the fishing lures on the ground to attract a variety of birds, and often these Goodies found a nuthatch. Sassy dendrobates didn't calm down until then, until I moved all the grain into their coffers. However, he was chased away from the feeding places of other birds. Once a cell nuthatch instantly absorbed, took food from the hands, but demanded, and entertainment. Best of all, he felt if he got in the cage and the apartment.
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I did just that, going for a couple of weeks into the forest. Left on the table a bowl of food and bowl of water. Upon returning stocks were found in the crevices, Slippers and other unexpected places. But in the normal bird cage nuthatch grimly crawling on the walls and continuously rattles them, testing the strength, as if hinting to the owner: he would try to live in such a prison.
And I must admit — members of the species Homo sapiens restrictions on the freedom too hard.published
Author: Thomas Kolbin