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Vasily Shukshin was born in the village Srostki Biysk district, Altai Krai into a peasant family. His parents were born in the same area and on the social status were considered individual peasants or middle peasants. When in 1930 began collectivization, they were forced to join the collective farm. The head of the family - L. Makar Shukshin - began working as a mechanic at the threshing machines, in the village enjoyed a well-deserved respect. Later, however, it did not save him from reprisals: in 1933 Makar Leontyevich arrested.
At 22, his mother, Maria S., was left without a breadwinner with two little ones in their arms. Deaf despair induce the terrible thought: to poison themselves and their children. Relief was nowhere to wait. The sisters of their seven children on the benches. Fate has kept from sin. Then came the sober realization that it is necessary to live, if not for yourself, at least for the sake of the children. Soon Maria S. remarried for countryman Paul Kuksina.
His stepfather Paul Kuksina Vasily Shukshin later remembered as a man of rare kindness. He married for love. How else? After all, the widow took, with two children. And only began to improve life as the war broke out folk. "Second father" Shukshina went to the front, and a year later brought funerals.
So I began thirteen Vasily Kravchuk main breadwinner and the man in the house. According to eyewitnesses, the boy grew up SHukshin closed, they say, "canny". In communicating with peers, he kept himself rigorously and demanded that they call him Vasya, and Basil. Those, of course, did not understand such requests and often mocked friend. In such cases SHukshin acted accordingly in nature - in the ducts of the Katun ran and hid her islands for a few days.
At the age of fifteen to Vasili came first love. It was a fourteen-year-old girl from the village of Masha Shumskaya. Like all rural couples, they sat on the bench before dawn, walked along the beach, dreaming ... He followed her with tyrla.
"Now write that tyrlo - this seating, - says Maria Ivanovna. - And it's not so ... this was place where the museum is now in a splice and from the alley to the club. There and young people gathered, accordion playing, the girls sang ditties, dance ... this is called tyrlo ».
At sixteen years old, graduated seven classes, Shukshin left splice: would "go to the people." From 1945 to 1947 he studied at the college Biysk automotive (35 km from the splice), but finish it he has not been able - to feed his family, had to quit his studies and get a job.
His first job was the Shukshina trust "Soyuzprommehanizatsiya", which belonged to the Moscow office. Sitting there in 1947 as a locksmith, rigger, Shukshin was soon sent to the first turbine plant in Kaluga, and then - to Vladimir Tractor Plant.
In April 1949, followed by a new change in the workplace - this time it was sent to the construction of the power station Shcherbinka Moscow-Kursk railway. There he worked for a few months, and then came to the construction of the railway bridge at the station Golitsyn. It was there (in October) and found his summons from the recruiting office on conscription for military service.
After graduating with a degree in radio operator Lads Camp, Shukshin in 1950 was one of the parts of the Black Sea Fleet stationed in Sevastopol. During the service, Vasily Masha wrote to each other almost every day. And while many of them were jealous ...
However, to serve "from start to finish" Shukshin failed - in 1953 he was diagnosed with a stomach ulcer. According to the stories of Shukshin, he became ill on the deck. His twisted such hellish pain that he almost lost consciousness. Seeing this, the doctor ordered several sailors immediately deliver it to the coast. And the sea at this time the storm broke. But there was no other way out, and Shukshin put into the boat. Later V.Shukshin well remembered this: "So again - and up, down and then fail. And the pain - just a cry shouted: "Guys, guys, drove!" It's a shame, crying, and I can not cry. And they were rowing. Do not look at me, rowing. Dovezli ».
Soon the medical commission of the Main Military Hospital of the Black Sea Fleet to the reserve Shukshin. The return to native land
After returning in 1953 to his native splice Basil and Mary were married. Maria Ivanovna said that it was the happiest time. Vasily externally passed the exam for grade 10 and went to work in a school for rural youth as a teacher of 5-7 classes (taught Russian language and literature), and at the same time director.
However, he prouchitelstvoval long. Entered the car was in college, but soon realized that it was not his path - the pistons and cylinders to drive him into depression. The same feeling he experienced when got a job as an instructor at Biysk district party committee. And then Shukshin decided to go to Moscow to enter the scriptwriting faculty of VGIK.
Mary did not let her husband, as she saw that he just raved about Moscow. Supported a son and his mother Maria S., moreover, she did everything she could - sold the cow and the money to the Son.
In 1955, Basil went to conquer Moscow, and Maria went to Novosibirsk, enter the teacher's college ... Admission VGIK
Arriving at the scriptwriting faculty of VGIK, SHukshin presented to the examiners their stories, which were written in thick granary notebook. Since handwriting Shukshin was very small, but the notebook was very thick, girls in the selection committee took the trouble to read the writing, thinking to myself that this is a typical applicant graphomaniac. However, in order not to offend him, we decided to advise: "You have textured appearance, go to the cast." Here is what a former classmate Shukshin film director Alexander Mitta 'Here SHukshin students learned that there is also directing department. And he had no idea that there is such a profession - the director. I thought for the production of the film going to the artists and agree among themselves how to shoot. It turned out that the director - the owner of the painting, the main man. Then he handed the directing.
Vgikovsky teachers were afraid to take it. He was a lover of truth, did not understand that we can say what is not. Teachers feared that it all perebalamutit and because of it will expel from work. But he believed Mikhail Romm ...
It is said that the exam MI Romm asked Shukshina:
- Tell me about Pierre Bezukhov.
- I "War and Peace" is not read, - said innocently Shukshin. - Thick book, there was no time.
- You what, thick books never read? - I surprised Romm.
- One read, - said Shukshin. - "Martin Eden & quot ;. A good book. Romm was indignant:
- How do you work the school principal? You uncultured man! And still want to become a director!
Then SHukshin exploded:
- What is the headmaster? Get the firewood, Napili, pinholes, add up to the kids do not freeze in winter. Tutorials Get the kerosene Obtain, teachers found. A one car in the village - on four hooves and a tail ... and even on their own backs ... Where here to read thick books ...
Vgikovsky grandmother were happy - rude Romm, now it is thrown out. A wise Romm said: "Only a very talented person can have such unconventional views. I give him five ».
Entered VGIK, SHukshin settled in the hostel of the Institute on Trifonovskaya street. And in 1957, soon received a letter splice. Basil wrote to his mother, saying that so and so loved another woman, Maria will divorce. Rural postman delivered a letter by mistake Shumsky. Tests, Ivan Stepanovich, went to Moscow. I talked with his son on the souls. He threatened to kill if he did not return to his daughter. But Shukshina already had another girlfriend lives ...
But Mary never will keep at it evil. Much later, after his death, she says, "Somehow I always remember him. Sometimes his eyes closed, and he's in my eyes is. And even with my eyes open, I still see him - a young, cheerful ... And how to explain it, I do not know ».
Maria Ivanovna and stayed in the village and work as a teacher ... The first movie roles
In 1956, the debut of Shukshin in film: in the film Gerasimov "Quiet Flows the Don" (second series), he played in a tiny episode - painted peeping from behind the fence sailor. With this sailor began cinematic fate Shukshina actor.
In the summer of next year Shukshin was in practice in Odessa and quite suddenly received an invitation from the director Marlene Hutsieva play a major role in his film "Two Fedor».
The film "Two Fedor" was released the country in 1959, and its premiere took place in the House of Cinema on the street Thieves'. And Shukshin this solemn event almost missed. The day before he drank too much, made a scandal in a public place, and he was detained by the police. When this was learned Hutsiev, he immediately rushed to rescue Shukshin. He came to the police station and met with his boss. The conversation was long, and the guardian of order for a long time wanted to meet the director. However, his arguments were quite convincing. "We are all equal before the law! - He said. - And the artist the more impermissible to behave this way! »
And yet succeeded in persuading Hutsiev policeman. Apparently, the crucial importance was the fact that the chief of Hutsiev invited to the premiere of the picture, he promised to arrange the best seats in the hall. Since the premiere of the film. It has been very successful, and Shukshina actor noticed.
Along with the successes in the cinema rather successfully evolved and literary fate Shukshin. From the third year on the advice of Romm, he began to send their stories to all editions of the capital in the hope that any of them will pay attention to his work. And he was not wrong. In 1958 the magazine "Change" was published his story "Two on a cart." However, this publication did not go unnoticed either criticism or readers, and dejected Shukshin stopped for a while to send their works to the editors.
But in the early '60s, one after another began to go out literary works Shukshin. The chronology of these publications is that: stories "Pravda", "Light of the soul", "love Stepkina" were published in the journal "October" - in the number 3 in 1961; "Exam" - in the number 1 of the 1962 th; "Crankshafts" and "Lola Seleznev from the faculty of journalism" - in the number 5 for the same year.
In 1963, the publishing house "Young Guard" came the first collection V.Shukshin called "villagers". In the same year in the journal "New World» (№2) were printed two of his story: "Cool Driver" and "Grinko Malyugin" (the cycle "They Katun»).
Movies. Starting 60th
In 1960 he graduated from the VGIK Vasily Shukshin. His graduation work - short film "of swan report" - went unnoticed. The film tells of a workaday workday rural district party committee in the hottest period of summer harvest. After seeing it, many colleagues Shukshina considered old-fashioned film, to some extent even boring.
But Shukshina acting career in the years evolved a lot better than a director. After the movie "Two Fedor" invitation to appear showered on him from all sides. Just a short period SHukshin starred in a number of paintings: "Golden train" (1959), "The Straight Story" (1960), "When the trees were big", "Alenka", "Mishka, Serega and I" (all 1962) "We, the two men" (1963) and others.
On the basis of his stories "Cool Driver" and "Grinko Malyugin," published in 1963, Shukshin soon wrote his first feature film "The Lives kind of guy." Filming began in the summer of the same year in the Altai.
In the title role - the driver Pasha Kolokol'nikova - SHukshin invited his classmate on study VGIK Kuravleva Leonid, whom he had once shot in his research paper "reports of swan." In other roles, he invited a number of well-known actors, some of whom agreed to work with the director-debutant, part - no.
Painting "He lives a guy" was released the country in 1964 and received rave reviews from the public. Although the Shukshin was not too pleased with his rolling destiny. The fact that the film somehow recorded in the category of comedy and sending in the same year at the International Film Festival in Venice, put it on the contest of children's and youth films. Although the film was awarded the grand prize, SHukshin this turn of events was not satisfied. He even had to speak in the magazine "Cinema Art» (№ 9) with its own explanation for the film. Here is what he said: "I very seriously understand comedy. May God grant us more to get them from the masters of this case. But in comedy, as I understand it, someone has to be funny. Hero primarily ... The hero of our film is not funny ».
In those same years, significant changes have occurred in his personal life Shukshin. In 1963, we talked a lot of his affair with the famous poetess Bella Akhmadulina he even took in his first film "He lives a guy" (she played a journalist). However, after a few months their affair ended happily, and fate brought Shukshina with another woman - Victoria Sofronova. It was at that time 33 years old, she was divorced and worked editor in the magazine "Moscow».
They met at the Central House of Writers in the discussion of his new novel. After the meeting, Victoria went with friends in a cafe. She recalls:
"Book a table, and suddenly there comes the Shukshin. Bella Akhmadulina. They then ended the novel, and it was their farewell party. They were even Andrei Tarkovsky and his wife. Accidentally or not, but we ended up with the tables Shukshin face to face. And the whole evening looking at each other's eyes. While I, in general, alien to such boldness.
Then he found me. I had just divorced her husband had no children ... We lived together, but Bob was often on the road, on the set. When arrived, we came to us his friends: Sasha Sarantsev operator, Vasya Belov. We all debated. I and my mother defended the Soviet regime, and Bob scolded. His father was also arrested. He is generally very different from all. In the closet, for example, he was an icon.
I Shukshin loved. And he was jealous. One even had a fight with Sarantseva because of what he said goodbye, kissed me.
One day he called me to his home in Joints. The mother and sister of Basil seemed to me simple yet good. As long as we were together Shukshin, they maintained a relationship with me. Then Vasya something happened, he lost interest. I realized that we would soon part. He said this to him. And soon became pregnant ... »
Apparently, the first serious rift in their relationship occurred in the summer of 1964, when went to the Pike Shukshin in the film "What is the sea?" (Directed by Eduard Bocharov). And where fate brought him to 26-year-old actress Lydia Fedoseeva. Lydia Fedoseyev
When Fedoseyev learned that her co-star will SHukshin (he was supposed to play the role of a former felon, sailor Zhora), she was upset. In the cinematic medium was talk of drunken spree that person, so nothing good to meet with him the actress did not wait. There was even a moment when she asked the director to find until it is too late substitute Shukshin, otherwise they are all with him naman. But the director assured her that everything will be fine.
The first meeting took place Fedoseyeva Shukshina and the train on the way to the Pike. She was traveling in the same compartment with his daughter Nastya and operators of painting.
L. Fedoseyev says, "I quietly watched Shukshin: his eyes are green - a funny, mischievous and example hooligan. The company proved to be extremely pleasant, and I began to sing. And sang - "Kalina red & quot ;. He suddenly looked at me strangely and picked ...
When all were asleep, I feel like someone enters the compartment. Look - Bob. Quietly sits down to me and says: "Come on, tell me about yourself." All night we talked.
When traveling on a bus in Sudak, we stopped in a grove. I remember I first got on the bus, and Shukshin behind me and something under his jacket holds. I asked the animal caught? And he told me - a small bouquet of flowers. Then he learned that they were the first flowers that he gave a woman. I have long kept their & quot ;.
Meanwhile, February 12, 1965 at the Victoria Sofronova a girl from Shukshin. She was named Katya. A few days later Victoria with a child was discharged from the hospital, and when they went out into the street, where they were already waiting for Shukshin. But the joyful meeting did not happen. Victoria knew that her beloved seeing another woman, and then ordered him to make the final choice. But nothing intelligible SHukshin tell her and could not. And she threw him out. And although he then went to visit her and the child, but the warm relations between them have not been.
B. Sofronova recalls: "Bob caught in the middle. He lived it with Lida, then with me. He was given an apartment in Sviblovo, and when he had something went wrong with her, she was gone, he invited us to his Katya. We arrived, but I was uncomfortable there, besides Bob drank. We left to itself ... »
What is the reason?
And it did.
Who are they?