It is believed that the improvement of the world ― a merit of exclusively men. However, many inventions we owe to the women. Recall the most vivid of them, and that all the rest though men have invented, but just for the sake of the weaker sex!
Forty eight million one hundred fourteen thousand sixteen
This device for measuring the coordinates of celestial bodies was invented by a female scientist, philosopher, astronomer and mathematician Hypatia of Alexandria in 370 BC, when people believed that the Earth was the center of the Universe. The astrolabe is sometimes called the first computer, so many features of this complex device. With this unique tool it was possible to determine not only the latitude but also the altitude and azimuths of the stars or the Sun, the moments of sunrise and sunset of light, to solve purely earthly tasks, like measuring the depth of the well or the height of a terrestrial object, calculate trigonometric functions do conversions between three coordinate systems, and more. Knowledge of astronomy was considered the basis of education, and the ability to use the astrolabe was a matter of prestige and a sign of appropriate education. European masters, like their predecessors, the Arabs paid great attention to decoration, so that the astrolabe became the subject of fashion and collecting in the Royal courts.
Forty four million nine hundred eighty three thousand nine hundred seventeen
This drink was invented in 1808, Nicole Barbier Clicquot. When the husband of this French women died prematurely, she took the reins into their own hands blagodarya strong character and business acumen have transformed the family business in the famous House of Champagne. Clicquot invented the technology of "riddling", which champagne for three months, gets rid of sediment and becomes crystal clear. This has significantly improved the quality of the drink and have led to this success. Pink champagne is always more expensive than white counterparts at least twice. This is due to the complexity of the technological process: in the production of this drink can not "hide", "cover up" the shortcomings and mistakes of the winemaker. Besides pink champagne is usually aged longer than their counterparts ― it simply is kept better than others. In the end, pink champagne is considered a lot of aesthetes, connoisseurs of subtle, complex taste.
Twenty one million three hundred thirty four thousand five hundred seventy three
Circular saw Circular saw invented by Tabitha Babbitt, a woman, members of the religious sect of Massachusetts. In 1810, Tabitha had the opportunity to observe how men work: she noticed that when sawing logs with a chainsaw, useful motion occurs when the saw "goes" forward when the saw is moving backward, the tree is not sawn. Babbitt thought it was a waste of energy, and developed a prototype circular saw ― saw with circular blade. In this form of saw every movement had meaning, and the saw began to actively use in the sawmill industry. However, the patent for his invention Tabitha has not received, as it was contrary to the precepts of her religious community.
Eighty five million seven hundred forty one thousand nine hundred seventy seven
Periscope for submarines
Device, allowing sailors to determine the distance to observed objects, in 1845, patented American Sarah Mather. The prototypes of periscope existed, but this woman has perfected the instrument. A device consisting of a pipe and two deployed at an angle of 45° mirrors, firmly entrenched in military practice. A periscope for a submarine was first used in the United States during the civil war of 1861-1865, and in the First world war soldiers mounted periscopes to the trunks of guns, that allowed the arrow to be in the trench and at the same time to fire. During the Second world war, periscopes were used on tanks for a more secure overview and submarines to monitor the situation over the surface of the sea.
Thirteen million twenty one thousand two hundred ninety four
In 1873 at the world exhibition in Vienna Russian Nadezhda Kozhina demonstrated the method of preparation of canned meat, for which he received a medal and international recognition. Since then our life has firmly entered the industrial manufacture of canned food. Without them for a long time unthinkable not only the work of the army but also the everyday life of ordinary citizens. To the "civilized" conservation people tried to preserve the freshness of meat for a long time all sorts of improvised ways. In ancient times it was done drying, drying, and Smoking, and in the 18th and 19th centuries came the way of canning using sterilized. This has contributed to the scientific arguments of the two scholars, the Irish Nedgame and the Italian Spallanzani: the first claimed that microbes arise from non-living matter, and the latter asserted that each microbe has its own progenitor. This led to the revolutionary idea that the products hermetically-sealed and subjected to heat treatment, can be stored for a long time. The only disadvantage of this method of food storage was that at the time of such manual processing was quite expensive, and the containers weighed a lot more content: before the invention of cans of food tin was far away.
Sixty nine million one hundred twenty nine thousand five hundred nine
Dishwasher Indispensable in everyday life miracle wash also invented by a woman ― Josephine Cochrane. Wanting to build a machine for washing dishes was a lot to this woman, but in the history of these inventors did not get too inefficient and cumbersome was their design. However, Josephine Cochrane undertook the improvement of the dishwasher not because she had to wash the dishes because she was a rich lady. She didn't like that the servants who would wash the dishes, casually belonged to her beloved set of 17th century Chinese porcelain and often beat her expensive dishes. Will miss a few dishes from your beloved China set, once Josephine uttered the phrase: "If nobody is going to invent a dishwasher, it is, in the end, I will do!"and got to work. The future inventor of the dishwasher were familiar with mechanics and physics, knew a lot about engines since I was born and brought up in the family of ship engineer and inventor. She managed to create a machine, which perfectly washes dishes, and does not beat her. In 1893 the first machine for dishwashing was presented at the Chicago world Fair, where it received a lot of positive feedback. Josephine Cochrane patented his invention and soon they started a company Kitchen Aid. And the first dishwasher was called "the Washing of Cochrane". Business inventor of the machine went up. Especially popular is her invention used in restaurants and hotels.
Sixty seven million eight hundred seventy seven thousand one hundred sixty three
This women's clothing item was patented milliner-Parisienne Ermini, Cadol in France in 1889, In his corsetry workshop Mrs. Kadel put the product, dubbed "le Bien-Etre" ("welfare"). The cups of this bra were supported by two satin ribbons, and behind the whole design was attached to the corset. The first bras were neither handsome nor sexy, but, nevertheless, was a great alternative to corsets – very inconvenient and causing great harm to women's health. Ermini, without further ADO, cut off the bottom part of the corset and sewed it to the straps to make life easier for your client-the player that the corset is extremely hindered to do what he likes. The appearance of the bra is the wealthy American Mary Phelps Jacobs, who in 1914 received the first patent for this ingenious invention. Going to another secular party, Mary noticed that the corset of thick fabric can not be combined with her gorgeous evening dress, opening the back, and a couple with their maid made of two elastic bands and a pair of handkerchiefs "bra back". Miracle linen was loved by many friends family Jacobs and eventually became very popular. Not surprisingly, after a few years the rights to the invention were purchased by Mary Phelps, a major firm engaged in the manufacture of corsets, for the fabulous for those times the sum $ 15,000.
Sixty two million five hundred sixteen thousand one hundred sixty five
Snow removal machine The idea of the first snowplow filed a Secretary Cynthia Westover in 1892. The girl anxiously relating to their shoes, every day I had to get to work in winter walk through the snowy streets. Patience is exhausted, and Cynthia came up and made the first primitive drawings of a snowplow, which captured the drifts of paths and "sprayed" them on the sides. The theoretical development was quickly adopted and appreciated by Industrialists. Soon came the first snow machines, which at once won universal love.
Seventy eight million one hundred eighty five thousand six hundred seven
Wipers The Creator of wipers for motor vehicles, a native of Alabama Mary Anderson, had many talents – she was both a rancher, grower, realtor, and inventor. In the winter of 1903, Mary visited new York; one frosty day she had to ride in the bus. Mary noticed that the trolley has an open window – or to maintain a normal review because of the falling snow was difficult. Back home in Alabama, Anderson has developed a model operated by the driver for cleaning the windshield. First the wipers Anderson was arranged rather simply – they were mounted in the machine the lever controlling attached to the outside of the rubber strip. Lever the driver can move the bar on the glass, erasing the accumulated snow. In 1903-m she received for his invention a patent for 17 years. The auto manufacturers first did not understand: в1905-m Mary tried to sell his patent known canadian company, but she refused – entrepreneurs felt that the probable income does not cover production-related difficulties. But already by 1920 — the expiry date of the patent, the wipers have become one of the essential elements of any car. The first production cars with wipers put on stream, the firm "Cadillac".
Sixty five million five hundred ninety nine thousand four hundred forty nine
Coffee filter Augustine Amalie Melitta Bentz was born in Dresden in 1873, She was the daughter of the publisher, her ancestors owned a brewery in Saxony. Melitta had the reputation of being "perfectly-nice girls" kind soul, full of energy and not afraid of difficulties. Melitta Bentz married Hugo Bentz, Manager of the Department in Dresden. Soon, the happy couple had 2 sons and a daughter. Housewife Melitta Bentz loved to sit with a Cup of coffee, but she always interfered obnoxious coffee grounds. And then one day she came up to roll funnel blotter from school notebooks of the son and put it in a pot with holes. The coffee filter was invented! 20 June 1908 it had received a patent for this useful innovation. With a starting capital of 73 Pfennig Melitta and her husband Hugo started the company Melitta producing coffee filters. Thirty one million four hundred eighty three thousand nine hundred ninety nine
Muffler for car The first cars were produced without silencers and uttered a terrible roar during their work. This, of course, the Scarecrow of urban residents, which caused an ambiguous attitude to the machines. It is believed that the acoustic filter for car invented American El Delores Jones in 1917, making the world around us is a little quieter and more comfortable.
Forty one million ninety seven thousand one hundred forty one
Waterproof diapers The first decision is important for all moms in the world problems absorbent diaper, it was proposed in America in the 30 years of the twentieth century. Inventors-men invented for kids uncomfortable rubber sliders, and alas – the problem is not solved. And then the women had to invent something on their own. In 1946, American housewife Marion Donovan was offered on top of the diapers to wrap the child in a special blanket that does not absorb moisture, and sitting behind a sewing machine, she made it out of curtains for the bathroom. It was the first step. In 1950, Donovan came up to combine outer waterproof cover with a disposable paper diaper from absorbing the moisture of the paper. Marion Donovan received a patent on this, but big business was not yet ready for such advanced ideas. As a result, she sold the patent for $1 million manufacturer of children's clothing Keko Corporation (which also has not been particularly successful). The success of her invention is achieved only when they are interested in all well-known company Procter & Gamble in the late 50-ies.
Ninety one million four hundred ninety five thousand sixteen
Beauty Hedy Lamarr was born in Vienna, went to drama school and soon began to act in films. World fame brought her Czechoslovak-Austrian film directed by Gustav Mahat "Ecstasy". The first in the history of cinema with a ten-minute scene of a naked girl bathing in a forest lake was quite innocent by modern standards, but in 1933 caused a storm of emotions, to the extent that Pope Pius XII called good Catholics not to watch the movie. The picture was banned in several countries and released a few years with censorship bills. And Hedi changed Europe into a new round of film career in Hollywood, established more than successful. It was pursued by scandals, fans, a string of failed marriages. However, the glamorous diva had an unusual hobby – seriously engaged in science. In 1942, together with a new friend, the avant-garde composer George Antejjl, Hedy Lamarr patented no less a secret communication system for radio-controlled torpedoes, protected from interception. Patent number 2 292 387 describes a secret communication system involving the transmission of false channels at different frequencies. This patent became the basis for communication with an expanded range, which today is used everywhere, from mobile phones to Wi-Fi.
Fifteen million three hundred twenty two thousand eight hundred seventy three
Stephanie Kwolek of USA was born in new Kensington, a family of Polish immigrants. At age 10 she lost her father John Kwolek, imparted her love of chemistry. The mother — Nellie Seidel of Kwolek actively partake daughter to fashion. In 1946 Stephanie graduated from the College of the University of Carnegie Mellon, a chemistry major. Immediately after graduation, she planned to continue her education and become a doctor. However, the money for the new education she had. I had to find a temporary job in the chemical industry. Job search helped chemist William Hale Church, offering a place in the DuPont company in Buffalo. Stephanie wasn't going to stay in DuPont, but this job is so fascinated her that she had abandoned earlier plans. In 1964, working together with a group of colleagues on the invention of lightweight and durable material for the manufacture of tires, Kwolek invented Kevlar. Substance struck all – it can withstand such loads, which was "not afford" to other polymers. Guide DuPont was pleasantly surprised in the almost empty place was created a new field of polymer chemistry. And new material ― Kevlar has been used, in particular, as the basis for heavy-duty bulletproof vests. The invention of Kwolek Stephanie saved the lives of thousands of police, firefighters and military. Silicone Patricia Billings was a student at Amarillo College in Texas and wanted to become a sculptor. However, her disappointment knew no bounds when the plaster Swan, she worked for a few months, crumbled and turned into white sand. Billings knew what the problem is. The experience of the sculptors was to use cement additives like Michelangelo during the Renaissance, and not just a girl's careless to think about the elegance of carved feathers on the wings.