How not to fall through the ice, and what to do if failed
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November always gives birth to the evil thought from emergency workers. Winter has not yet begun, and in Tatarstan there have been casualties of winter fishing. Who is often a perpetrator and a victim of such accidents? Beginners? Arrogant young guys? Alas, age and experience of the fisherman, the likelihood of trouble depends. It depends on our carelessness and ignorance of the rules.
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But often the rules are not applied. How can it be that rules – and not rescued? And that's it.
Regulations — one for all
Rescuers will not get you to smile in November if you belong to the category of people boring them to tears. To those of the Ministry of emergency situations warns, as the Ministry of health. I'm warning you... Honor, the standard rules of conduct on the ice from the GIMS of EMERCOM of Russia. As a rule of a General nature, they are designed for everyone to understand even a schoolboy. But even a schoolboy should be clear that some items to observe is not always possible. Not because the rescuers — because we are wrong.
1. In any case can not go on the ice in the dark and in poor visibility (fog, snowfall, rain)
This paragraph raises a smile. We have in the country region (for example, Murmansk), where in November any time of the day – dark. Of course, once lighter, once completely dark, only "frost and sun – day wonderful" — it's not about just the North. But what about the fog and heavy rain – to observe strictly! But do not observe...
2. The transition (moving) across the river use the equipped ice crossings.
The second point to November inapplicable because ice crossings is still simply no. And to use the place where "once was the ice passage" absolutely not. Everything changes and the situation on the ice from year to year – is necessary.
3. It is impossible to check the strength of ice kick my feet.
You can, of course, to say that the third paragraph is nonsense: who would think to check the strength of ice kick my feet? Alas. Comes. Every year, several such strange people is...
And most importantly — no rules will help the one who climbed the first ice in November, not after waiting at least a week!
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In the rules you need to read between the lines
4. Is considered safe ice thickness of at least 7 cm; strong is the ice transparent and loose and milky threat. Moving across the pond, watch for the color of ice: the darker it is, the thinner. While driving on the ice should avoid dangerous places and the sites covered with a thick layer of snow.
On paragraph 4 we can agree with everything except one thing: sometimes even inches of ice does not keep people. And sometimes five inches will withstand any jumping fat. It all depends on the water composition, location, nature of the reservoir, weather conditions... a Thousand factors that can be favourable or fatal.
5. Forced transition of the reservoir is safest to stick to the beaten paths or to go on already laid track.
6. At the transition of the reservoir group is necessary to observe a distance from each other (5-6).
Paragraph 6 is also not always relevant. On the ice a half-meter thickness you can safely move the crowd. But do you know exactly the thickness of the ice? It is in this place? Is it safe, if there is a crack or gully? We will focus on this in detail, but a little later.
7. Frozen river (lake) is better to move on skis: ski bindings loosen, if necessary, to reset; ski pole hold in your hands, not draping loops to the wrists to in case of danger, immediately to throw them away.
Item 7 needs no comment, but to throw a ski pole out take your time. Both the skis and poles can save your life!
8. If you have a backpack (knapsack), hang it on one shoulder, this will make it easy to get rid of goods in case if the ice beneath you will fail.
By the way, about point 8... Wooden chaise if it is empty, well-kept afloat by himself and can support you. If it is full to the lid by the catch — there is another matter. But when you have it on one shoulder for a long time do not hold. Ill luck? Will have to investigate.
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Rules — no assumptions
9. To have a means of communication (mobile phones).
All. Sorry, not all of them catch the signal. But the pocket won't. And calling MOE a hundred kilometers – the rescuers will not get the chance to get that far. Call your neighbor at the cottage or other anglers on the same water body.
10. On a frozen body of water should carry a durable cord with a length of 20 – 25 meters with big deaf eye at the end and cargo. The cargo will help to throw the cable and fell into the water, comrade, loop is necessary in order that the victim could securely hold, pull her under the arms. Special claws – two sticks-arm with metal pins at the ends, connected by a cord. Such spikes are more comfortable to cling to the ice, which quickly gets wet and is slippery. Get a successfully. It will help to test the ice, and in case of trouble it can be put across the gap of the hole.
Claws, ice pick, "the end of Aleksandrova" or loop with a load – useful things. But the burden should not everyone is not a weight, for example. After hitting a weight in the forehead of drowning are often not in a rush to get. A sand bag is better. But throw careful!
11. During fishing it is impossible to punch a lot of holes in a limited area and to gather in large groups.
12. We kindly request parents: do not let children on the ice (for fishing, skiing and skating) unattended.
13. To exclude the use of alcoholic beverages.
If you already fell into the water…
GIMS the Ministry of emergency situations gives, and in this case good tips on the case:
Don't panic, drop heavy things, abstain afloat, call for help
Lean on the edge of the ice are widely outstretched hands
Try not to break off the edge of the ice, fell on her chest, serially lift and pull out feet on an ice floe
Keep your head high above the water surface, constantly call for help
Getting out of the hole, otchityvayasj, and then crawl to the other side where came: because the ice is already tested.
All right. Only this rule is the most common. And every accident – specific. Rules GIMS of the MOE to question the impossible, but we must remember that no document will cover all of the surprises you might encounter on the ice, in the woods, in the swamp... Let's try to add to the General regulations of specifics.
Study the pond!
It is assumed that the pond that you go fishing, is close by, you are aware of the fishermen around are, for the most part, familiar. All of this is a huge plus. But some of the theory, proven by many generations, need to know, and do not sin again. Let's start with the ice thickness, its potential strength and safety.
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The danger of ice on the river is much higher than in the lake. Currents in rivers are not only fast or powerful – they are changeable, depending on pressure and temperature. Animals and experienced hunters by the sound of the rapids can predict the change in the weather. A change in the weather change in winter thickness and properties of ice. And that's not to mention the fact that in the river, even large ice massifs shift, and go to the beach where came can get, especially during early freeze-up.
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Lake lake — hatred. Closed Lamba small or large body of water like lake Peipus, and Ilmen, not to mention the lake Onega or Ladoga – a huge difference. In a large pond the ice can "breathe" is a huge moving mass of water, ice wave, Yes, Yes! – all experienced fishermen know. And if fresh ice from snow (great insulation), the increase in the thickness of the ice can and does stop. But there is always someone who hopes for the best.
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Meanwhile, in shallow water, near Lud and shoals, the ice thickness is changing literally a metre! So how to measure it? If you do not have expensive equipment (it is available to the MOE, and based on these studies, MOE "gives the nod" for fishing in a particular pond with coordinates), you can use the old tips:
reliable blue ice white,
white safer yellow,
the best ice – dark-transparent, without bubbles!
But it is unlikely to give you a guarantee. Test hole – or rather, no one has come up with. But if the drill goes easy and "sand crunch" — the ice is unreliable.
Before making a test hole, make sure there are no:
protruding from under the ice of reeds, riparian vegetation. There is always more dangerous. 5 centimeters, not even a 7 but if through it sprouted grass, may fall for a sweet soul even under the child;
flowing into the lake or river streams, no keys, springs in such places the ice is thin, frequent washouts and hole. Near polynyas the water is richer in oxygen near the confluence of streams, deals food, and then the fish often worth it. But excuse me: the eye sees, but the tooth is itching. The ear takes a little pleasure after the icy swim, and drowned it and does not need them.
drains of the industrial enterprises, urban water utility, with farms and fields. They will also not needed. Moreover, what's the ice is unreliable. Fresh smell not guaranteed, and the fish are often infected with helminths (worms, basically). Is it worth the risk?
Often in such places the ice splashed the water, it forms a bubble friable crust. Even if you grab it then above and below, breaks down this "layer cake" for a sweet soul.
Hole in such a place can become a visual aid for the device of artesian wells. Can do without the fountain, but well, if you just find yourself knee-deep in water. Or maybe just "Wow!"(Well, a few words that they trip off the tongue). And then — very cold and wet inconvenience.
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In the archipelago and among groups of small Islands or Lud ice thickness is often unpredictable. You can a few seasons to go through the known places – and one day to run into a surprise. Water is the most unstable structure in nature. But ice is also water, although solid.
The Internet and special literature published table of ice thickness depending on the temperature and the ice growth (2.5 mm per degree below zero day, etc.) Remember how the Lord's prayer is not a rule! This "guide to exemptions". Measurements of ice thickness on large reservoirs and identify locations for safe fishing in them – the professionals!
You will not like it...
And yet this need to write. I had to be present one day when a sad diving operations. With fifteen depth raised the Car. Long looked for the signs like "they usually went here." The event is very expensive.
Then, finding the car, raised it to the surface. Do not paint in colors and paint what was inside... there was also a box favorite fishing beverage. No one touched the vodka, though she was quite normal sealed.
In the box was missing three bottles. They cost the lives of four.
Get body needed, until the body is discovered, the man was reported missing. And the apartment is privatized, the garden – in the property, someone from the "passengers" had their own business... the lineup cost the relatives of the terrible memories.
To the shore and the road was two hundred meters. Two hundred meters!!! It was worth it? Your grandparents fishing on the ice machines did not go! Are you smarter than grandfathers?
If you still need to overcome on the ice a long distance, for this grandfathers invented skiing, Finnish sledge, for equipment Sami Sani, "cheesecake" (inflated tire). All this reduces the pressure per square centimeter, and to go easier, and with sledges or "cheesecake" (scientifically tubing) don't have to drag all on itself.
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It is believed that the ice thickness 15 cm safely travel on the ice by snowmobile. Yes, that's right. If you are confident in the water, and that you, if that is who to help, and it is not just to get you out.
The ice was broken!
If you fell through the ice... Well, no. So once this happens. Usually you have a second or more. The ice begins to sink, you lose your balance, underfoot gurgled...
You won't stay dry anyway, so the first rule: drop to your belly and all of the hand-off! If you have time to reset from the back of a gig, great. Try to roll away from the dangerous places to the side as far as possible. Chaise on the back – crawl! If you ski – fastenings should not be buttoned or confusing, best of all – the old boot — to pull the legs. If in the hands of "claws" — cling! Breathe – and not just exhale, and with a loud sound. Words don't matter. Will forgive you. And others will speak about the same.
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It is sometimes recommended to carry a whistle. It is louder and does not require tension, like a scream. The trouble is that not all whistle react. Remember how many times his players at the stadium did not hear, and then fishing. Words more reliable.
By the way, if you simply go on the ice, or have fished, and nothing happened – observe reasonable quiet. Shout of joy, catch the first okushko. If anything, the neighbors will think you just got the other one.
To get out not work? Pogrebite to the edge and not holding on to the ice with his hands – hands far and wide, relying on the elbows. Do not jump out on the edge of the ice, like a cowboy on a horse. Gently bring the leg, then the other and also carefully crawl to where you already were, and the ice falls. Wet – well. Suffer. It could be worse.
If one failed suddenly
If you hear from where you just walked, stood or sat on the wagon friend, shout or vigorous words, lie on your stomach and crawl towards a failure.
If you have the same cord with a loop – throw, but not immediately, and at a distance of 4-5 meters (remember: it is necessary to throw a loop with the load, trying not to get a drowning man on the head). Not suitable!( ) and crawl (!!) to the edge of the gap, wield rope, skis, a successfully, ski pole. Skiing is good cross to put in his area of weight distribution will increase. Drag!
If the terms of a few people in charge of the rescue action is one. Do not climb all at once to prove that they are ready to die for a friend: first, inadvertently to prove it, and secondly, believe your best friend will seem like someone who will sacrifice dry pants, a sweater, and if the coat's best friend!
And yet... One at the edge of the break throws the rope or stretch clothing (belt, that is) drowning. Second – pulls (being 5-7 metres) both for the other rope. Other at this time with the necessary amount of clothing. Wet will be saved, and rescuers.
When "lucky" is on a firm surface, slowly pull up stakes and collect the fish, but someone dry and one for all, if you are in the company. If you two will come over all that later.
Running is not necessary, but a walking step you are unlikely to succeed. If you go far, it makes sense to RUB the affected with vodka and give them to drink hot tea. Not the opposite! Vodka warms for a minute and chill an hour — ask any doctor! Alcohol grind all the more impossible – it evaporates and cools further (according to this principle a refrigerator works, if someone does not know). But hot tea from a thermos is what you need. Do NOT RUB anybody and never with snow. If the frost is stronger than -20 C, immediately ashore and light the fire! If tight -30C – Oh... well, you're in luck...
In any case, at the end of this message I would like to say something again. No, I don't think people are careless, stupid, drunks, slobs. Nothing of the sort. I am the same as you. Say:
before stood a normal ice, there is nothing to meddle in rivers and lakes!
not knowing the reservoir, do not go there alone!
there is nothing to driving around on the ice on the cars!
And — don't drink while fishing vodka. Please. Even if you think that life has failed. This impression can go. It even pass exactly at the moment when the ice will leave from under feet. But who can guarantee what will happen next? published