1302 - In Florence, a coup took place, came to power "black" Guelph white leaders were sentenced to death, and their property was confiscated. One of the "white" was a man of Dante Alighieri. There generally was very temperamental and characteristic of the history of those times. At the beginning of the 13th century Florentine republic was quite powerful self-contained unit. The only thing that caused sorrow - strife between supporters of the emperor Ghibellines (the hell emperor, it would seem, the Republic?) And supporters of the Pope Guelphs. Ghibellines won, as usual, drove the opponents, well divided. Some time later, beat pots with Pisa. Badly beaten, which caused unrest and not weak revival of Guelph. Moreover, already divided into two wings: the "black" violent supporters of the pope and white, which were close to the interests of the traders and manufacturers. As a clear advantage was not one of the parties, the pope made a knight's move and invited Charles of Valois to stay with the army. Argue this in the "white" was nothing, as a result of losing 15 leaders, among whom was Dante were prigovoreny.Aligeri was accused of embezzlement and disobedience to His Holiness. He escaped, wandered, wrote in these years, "Divine Comedy." It is understandable, what thoughts might come in golovuv this state. Although described genius, yes
1564 - Saw the Light "Apostle", the first printed book of Muscovy. It would seem that a low bow to Ivan Fedorov, but no. Competitors are not asleep, copyists, methods were familiar to this day. In the end, after the burning of the printing house, Fedorov decided: "Everything!" And jerked away from the valley. Where it turned away Grand Duchy of Lithuania where he was a dear soul took Hetman Chodkiewicz, equipped for the job in the print shop Zabludovo, GDSs Fedorov and worked for a long time. Then Ivan moved to Lviv, where he founded has its own printing
1813 - Establishment of Friedrich Wilhelm Jelen Cross. It happened during the war for the liberation of Prussia by Napoleon's troops.
1889 - patented the first automatic telephone exchange. Occupation Almon Stroudzhera not supposed to open it. He was an undertaker, and very successful. However, in a not so (as it seemed at first) good day rival wife began to work as a telephone operator at the local station. Remember the movie about those times: "The young lady, connect ...". So, the young lady has joined in need of funeral services the citizens of course, not to Almon. Revenue fell catastrophically. But Stroudzher did not solve the issue by force. Instead, he invented a decade-stepping switch, eliminating the need for the operator as such ... First name Stroudzhera PBX, which entered into operation in 1892, dubbed as "the phone without ladies and curses"