We were not always belymiSchitaetsya that Europeans have always had lighter skin than other nations. But perhaps this is not the color it has acquired more than 8,000 years ago as a result of migration to Europe, the modern inhabitants of the Caucasus, who joined the African migrants who arrived on the continent of Europe about 40 000 years ago.
Paper presented at the 84th annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropology, giving a clearer picture of the evolution in Europe. It is contrary to the popular belief that people had light skin, tens of thousands of years ago, during the migration of peoples from Africa and the Middle East to Europe. It is believed that the sun that shines in Europe is not so bright, along with shorter days helped to lighten the skin. But now scientists believe that this is not true.
The new study compares the genomes of human remains found during archaeological excavations throughout Europe, with a genome of 83 modern Europeans, the report says Anne Gibbons to the journal Science. Ian Matheson, a research fellow at Harvard University, discovered five genes associated with changes in diet and skin pigmentation, which have undergone natural selection. Three of these genes have been associated with skin color.
The study found that 8,500 years ago, the hunter-gatherers who lived in what is now Spain, Luxembourg and Hungary, had dark skin. Genes SLC24A5 and SLC45A2, defining the depigmentation of the skin, they have not found. When the first farmers from the Middle East arrived in Europe, they brought with them the genes for light skin. Mixing with the southern Europeans, contributed to the spread of these genes until 5800 years ago, they did not become dominant in Europe.
The same study tracks the growth and lactose tolerance. They found that the gene responsible for high growth, appeared in northern and central Europeans about 8,000 years ago. George Perry, an anthropological geneticist, told Science, the study provides "a much more detailed picture of how natural selection works." Although genes can not determine the language spoken people, the researchers say their findings could influence the debate about the origins of Indo-European languages.
Indo-European languages includes more than 400 languages - as modern such as English and Polish, and ancient, such as Hittite and Sanskrit. The Basque language, which is spoken in the south-western France and northern Spain, not Indo-European, and possibly the only surviving relic belonging to the earlier language. Linguists have long debated whether come to Europe Indo-European languages, together with migrants from the Middle East or any other group. Previously, researchers believed that Indo-European languages spread around 8,500 years ago when the first farmers from the Near East (modern Turkey) brought them to Europe.
More 5000 years ago, the body could not absorb Europeans molokoAntropologi determined that, as already known, European hunter-gatherers eight thousand years ago could not digest cow's milk. However, this ability have been deprived of the Neolithic and migrants - as the farmers from the Near East (7800 years ago), and ranchers pit culture (who came from the eastern steppes 4,800 years ago). They are missing the gene lactose tolerance. This gene has spread through Europe only 4300 years ago, in the Bronze Age.
"Our results show the transition to the lighter pigmentation of the skin hunters, gatherers and farmers, but, surprisingly, the complete absence of lactose tolerance - says Professor of the Institute of Earth University College Dublin Ron Pinchas - which means that these ancient Europeans have pets such as cows, goats and sheep, but they have not yet developed a genetic tolerance to drink the milk of mammals in large quantities ».