For sixteen years before the Cosmos

Every year on April 12 we talk about space. A May 9 - the Victory. But rarely remember that the difference of 16 years between these dates is not so big. Space mastered those who fought, and grew up in a time of war. And now, after the celebration of Victory Day, it's time to remember what the war should be left in their lives.

improbability squared h4>

The most incredible military past was at the cosmonaut Konstantin Feoktistov. When the war began, Constantine was fifteen years old. Feoktistov family lived in Voronezh, who was away from the front lines until 1942. In the summer of 1942, the city was first bombed, and the mother of Constantine (called father) has decided to leave the city. Constantine quietly "lost" and came to the reconnaissance in the Voronezh garrison. Right-bank part of the city, the Germans occupied on July 6, but on the left bank could not cross. A Feoktistov walked across the river to explore. Four times a sixteen year old man crossed the river at night, walking around the city, the location scouting staffs, artillery and tanks, and came back. And in the fifth got the SS patrol which, without any investigation, shot him ...

I do not have time to get scared, saw only fly in the barrel of the gun when the German pulled out and shot me in the face. I felt like a blow to the jaw, and flew into the pit. He fell well. Fell, rolled over and crashed: the ground was hard, and at the bottom of the pit littered with shards of bricks. At some point, I probably lost consciousness, but then woke up and realized: do not move, no sound! That's right, I heard a conversation, then they have two, the German pushed into the pit foot brick, but I did not get. Talking, both left the yard. I lay there and felt severe pain in the jaw and weakness throughout the body. Then he stood on the bottom of the pit - a deep, a meter and a half or two, how to get out? Suddenly I hear - the Germans are back! I immediately fell face down, immediately resumed his former position. They came to the pit, and exchanged a few words, and slowly left. I lay for a little more, got up and still got out. I>
KP Feoktistov, "The path of life». Blockquote>
 I was lucky - the bullet went through his chin and neck, bleed, and does not hurt the vital blood vessels. Two days had to hide in the city - the first night was not strong enough to get to the river. For three days he could not eat and drink - the tumor has blocked esophagus. On the fourth day she was sleeping, and serious medical intervention is not required. A field hospital of Constantine found his mother and taken away to the rear.

186 sorties h4>

Cosmonaut Georgy Beregovoy was born in 1921 and when the war ended Voroshilovgrad school military pilots behalf of the proletariat Donbass. But in terms of where he came pilots drew lots for the flight - the plane is almost gone. I had to relearn the BB-22, then Pe-3, and finally, the IL-2. The summer of 1942 was the Kalinin Front. During the war years he made 186 sorties. Three times was shot down. In one case, he made an emergency landing on the forest for four days and went to his. Another time, on a burning car pulled up to the front line and jumped from the plane just in the nick of time.

In memory of the last battle Coast has asked to draw on the emblem of "Soyuz-3" IL-2:

George Coast is the only astronaut, who at the time of awarding the title of Hero of the Soviet Union for space flight already had the title of hero for heroism in World War II.

It might not be h4>

The dwelling in the house-museum of Gagarin Klushino.

This is not often think of, but the world-famous smile Gagarin could destroy an unnamed German who drove the Gagarin family home in the village Klushino forced to live in the dugout. Gagarin fought - in 1941, he only went to the first class, but hunger, disease, war crimes of the Germans in occupied territory could kill him just as easily. I almost killed the younger brother of Gagarin - the German hung it on the scarf, but Yuri had to call his mother. The school closed in the village - the Germans were driven teacher with children from all premises where she was trying to teach. Only when the village was liberated by Soviet troops in 43, Gagarin family was able to return to his house, and Jura - to study further.

Over the Hills of Manchuria h4>

Pavel Belyaev in 1943 as a volunteer went to the front, was sent to the Yeisk Pilot School and the war in Europe did not have time. But he had a fighter pilot to take part in the defeat of the Japanese Kwantung Army.

Odessa underground h4>

Georgy Dobrovolsky lived in Odessa. When in 1941 the city approached the Nazis, helped dig trenches, put out incendiary bombs. After the occupation of the city took part in the partisan movement. In 1944, sixteen-year-Man arrested for possession of weapons, tortured and sentenced to 25 years hard labor. But with the help of underground parties that George did not give even under torture, he was able to escape.

The Tinder Box h4>

Vladimir Shatalov thirteen met the war in Leningrad. Repeatedly he attempted to escape to the front, and the father was forced to take him to his part. One and a half months was a kind of son of the regiment, then sent to the evacuation.

People branch h4>

Among those who did not fly into space itself, there were many war veterans. Cosmonauts were selected, trained and taught the people who have gone through terrible military trials. Assistant Chief of the Air Force for space was Николай Kamanin , one of the first Heroes of the Soviet Union in the Great Patriotic War, commanded the Air Division, and then the body. Cosmonaut Training Center headed by Николай F. Kuznetsov , who fought in the Russo-Finnish War, World War II, and Korea.
The engineers who designed the spacecraft, as a rule, did not fight directly in front. But their work on the creation of new equipment was heavy, self-sacrificing, and saved the lives of those who fought, bringing victory.

Overseas h4> The American astronauts were older, and among the "top seven" many had to war. Alan Shepard served on a destroyer, John Glenn made 59 combat missions in the Pacific. Donald Slayton made 56 sorties bomber in Europe, and 7 - in the Pacific, and Gordon Cooper joined the Marine Corps in 1945, but did not go to war.

Conclusion h4> The Great Patriotic War was given very hard in our country. Killed tens of millions of people, many cities and factories were destroyed. But the war did not break our civilization. The cities were rebuilt, the plants develop new technologies. And in just sixteen years, our ancestors, who won the greatest evil of the twentieth century, made the first step to the stars.

Without the heroism of those who gave their lives for the victory, fought and worked selflessly in the rear, it would not be us or our cosmos. On the last holiday, Victory Day!

List of references h4> Also used Wikipedia:

Энциклопедия "Astronauts» TV Roscosmos Georgy Dobrovolsky, the site "Heroes of the country" «As the astronauts to defend their homeland," Express newspaper the homeland of Yuri Gagarin, RIA Novosti Новость the opening of a memorial to pilots-astronauts, war veterans Coast, George T.," Three heights, "a memoir COMMENT. Feoktistov, "The path of life»



See also

New and interesting