"Start talking about the colonization of Mars, we must bear in mind that:
- Mars is too far away;
- ON MARS NOTHING to extract and do not produce;
- There is no suitable for us ATMOSPHERE;
- The food there to be found;
- MARS weakly protected from cosmic and solar radiation.
With the decision of the first, the transport, the problem is the solution to all the others. Colonize and industrialize the Sahara is much easier than Mars because flying to another planet will cost dearly. Delivery of equipment to Mars worth tens of thousands of dollars, you need to be sure that each gram of cargo will be useful and that it did not happen on the way. Because of this, the cost of R & D will fly up to heaven. So, deal with the other issues - that has the problem.
IF solve the second problem, it will facilitate the solution of all the rest. The first step before the colonization of Mars - is to create an infrastructure that will allow the first settlers immediately begin to collect resources. It is necessary to establish the production of metals, stones, glass and plastic. It is necessary to get the atmosphere suitable for life, but it is problematic because of its composition. We'll have to carry oxygen, argon and nitrogen - the latter particularly difficult because to get it in the right quantity is not so simple. People can not do without on Mars industrial complex: from the extracted resources will need to make solar panels, greenhouses, vehicles, lamps, beds, chairs, equipment, and build housing. Ideally, this should all work as soon as the first settler to set foot on Mars.
The first settlers need any protection, otherwise they will suffer from cancer much more earthlings
HAVING ON PLANET existing infrastructure, to solve the third problem - Unsuitable atmosphere - it will be much easier. Of course, you can bring a little bit of air from the earth, but it is expensive and rather pointless for the colonialists, for life to them it is simply not enough. To solve this problem - one of the main objectives of the mission "Mars 2020».
The atmosphere of Mars is loose and inferior in this indicator in the atmosphere of the Earth 150 times. There is a lot of carbon dioxide, which is why it is, in fact, is poisonous to humans. To modify the balance and achieve the oxygen concentration of about 20%, will require huge costs. Another thing, if the infrastructure is already built - then it is not so difficult. Also required inert gas, through which each of stray sparks nothing will explode. On Earth, this takes the role of nitrogen, but it is in the atmosphere of Mars is only 2%. So, a good portion of the Martian atmosphere should be translated into a liquid state and then divided condensed gases. To achieve this, the atmosphere will have to chill. Sounds expensive? It really is. Make Mars habitable difficult.
MORE ON MARS argon than nitrogen, and we can use FIRST MI. But in order to solve the fourth problem, lack of food, we need to plant the plant, and they require nitrogen - or at least to microorganisms located on them. It is necessary to solve the first two problems, as the fourth becomes relatively simple. All you need - is to build a lot of greenhouses. Unfortunately, Mars is very far away, it's cold, and therefore build on its surface sealed glazed greenhouses - not the best option. Mars gets two times less sunlight than Earth, so perhaps due to the fifth problem - radiation - it is better to build everything under the ground.
Dense atmosphere and a strong magnetic field of the Earth constrain radiation from Mars is not. The first settlers need any protection, otherwise they will suffer from cancer much more earthlings. Unfortunately, because of this, the Martians have to live underground. If you dream about how you will look out the window and enjoy the scenery of red, then you have to accept the fact that the reality would be less romantic - at least until such time as terraforming goes into active stage ». www.lookatme.ru/mag/how-to/ask/208425-question-mars-colonization