Millennium people lived side by side with the wolves, though to this day, these predators are human dangerous enemy. They are cunning, they have a stable hierarchical system, they are much smarter than their closest relatives - the dog.
Wolves use facial expressions and motions when dealing in the pack. Important role played by the tail. At leader, he raised high "pipe". This is the first sign by which you can distinguish a leader. In the middle of the hierarchy, which usually consists of the wolves of the older generation, it is omitted, and at lower level in the wolf pack he is biased to the belly.
Central flocks of life revolves around the leaders that stand out not so much physical stamina much individuality. Leaders constantly have to confirm its position. In addition to the normal duties of a search of prey, the path and the protection of the pack, they are, in particular, often show aggression towards members of the pack: growl, bite, chase them. Especially aggression needed during mating. It suppresses the hormone levels of other members of the pack, causing obey and killing competition. Under normal circumstances, the right of reproduction in the school has only the alpha pair.
It can be a long time to sing odes about the physical superiority of the wolf dog. But the wolf is not only stronger, but also smarter than their immediate family, who have been tamed by man 15-18 thousand years ago. That is the conclusion drawn by researchers from the Research Institute of Messerli at the Vienna Veterinary University. They conducted an experiment in which 14 wolves were involved and 15 stray dogs, all about the same age, six months old.
Each was given an opportunity to once or twice to see how to train a dog, wielding his teeth and paws, he opened the wooden box where the food was stored, and thus received a delicious trophy. Later, each of the pups allowed to be next to the box where the food was kept. To the surprise of scientists, all the wolves repeated exactly what they have seen and got to the food. But among the dogs, only four succeeded.
In the second phase of the experiment the test complicated. Wolves provided to solve a similar problem but without prior demonstration, that is, the wolves faced boxes, without any clue how to open it. In this case, they showed not a brilliant result - realized knock down a few feet or cover the teeth. According to the authors, this proves that wolves are able to learn by watching the actions of other animals, imitating their behavior, if it provides a benefit to them.
Numerous observations of the behavior of wolves show that they are capable of imitation and attention than dogs. Their brains are 30% larger than that of dogs. This additional memory, which uses the flock, including, in traversing its territory and routes. They never move at random and followed ahead of the herds of ungulates, which often are their main diet. Their memory is a kind of catalog that tells them, given their familiar habits of the victim, where and with what probability they may meet one or another animal. By choosing the right direction to where is "Dinner is served," they rush him beaten path to intercept.
Generally, black wolves in nature should not be. Researchers from Stanford University in 2008 showed that the mutation responsible for the appearance of black wool, occurs only in dogs, so Black Wolf - the result of long-standing gray wolves interbreeding with domesticated dogs. It is still unclear what benefit individuals get born black skin - that does not make them better hunters, but shows an improvement in resistance to certain infections. Black wolves are most prevalent in North America.
Despite warm relations in the pack, wolves do not stop to eat his next of kin, if fate has given such an opportunity. Of course, for the sake of food get into a fight no one will. Usually fatal clashes occur during courtship between young players. Therefore, if a pack of someone badly injured or killed, his brothers and sisters will not give up such food. After all, nature has not bestowed these predators simple life. Sometimes it has to do without food for up to two weeks. Of the victims during the war between flocks become the alpha pair - wolves, like humans, killed leaders, defeated the enemy.
Tame can not be pardoned
People often incorrectly put a comma in this sentence, believing that miracles happen, and even a wild beast with a good treatment of them, can be tamed. After all, the behavior of the cubs is no different from ordinary puppies - they are always ready to play, enjoy fellowship, love their hozyaina.Razve that asking for more food. Yet wild beast is a wild, nature takes its. And it's not so much the amount of feeding, because of the lack of which the wolf may lose control as the peculiarities of the social behavior of adult wolves.
There are many stories in which the wolf has long lived in the house as an ordinary human dog, except that required more food, but everything changed with the onset of puberty. Adult wolves should take their place in the pack. Therefore matured beast always had to show that the "human pack" main - owners of the house. And this should be done continuously, or "pet" just would take the vacant seat. In the end, the struggle for social hierarchy led to serious injuries or family members, or to Sleep beast. Domesticated wolf path in the woods ordered - it two ways, either in a zoo or in a veterinary table.
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