Surely you have heard lot of arguments about what Russia for many years, "sitting on the oil needle". Of course, the natural resources are a key part of Russia's exports. However, on one commodity trade is not an end. I suggest a look that Russia offers for export.
Science fiction? Do not believe me? Let's see together. First, a little tedious, but important numbers. Ie real facts, not speculation and fantasy. Here's how it looks on the general figures, according to the Central Bank for 2013:
Total 2013 exports of goods by 523 billion dollars. Service and 70 bln. Dollars. In sum, Russia has received from all export 593 billion. Dollars in 2013. Of these, crude oil was sold by 174 billion oil - 109 billion of natural gas by 67 billion liquefied natural gas to 5 billion. That is, hydrocarbons and its derivatives have been exported to 355 billion. Dollars in 2013. [Color = # 3333FF] It turns out that 238 billion dollars Russia has received in 2013 from exports of goods and services, in addition to oil and gas. [/ Color]
238 billion of non-fuel exports - a lot or a little? For comparison, the total export of all goods and services in Russia in 2004 was about 204 billion. Does anyone remember the 2004 economic apocalypse? No? This is because it was not. Somehow we were able to survive such a meager export. In recent years exports have been even lower - and nothing like the quinoa is not ate.
Moreover! There were times when a giant Soviet Union, with all its parasites in his time managed to somehow survive with dollar export order of tens of billions of dollars in terms of today. However, the result still ruptured and collapsed, because even hlebushek had borrowed to buy from Westerners because its not enough. However, Russia is itself is its world's largest exporter, so that the danger does not threaten - more on that below.
Of course, at the moment nothing good to expect from a possible fall in energy prices is not necessary - and of GDP, and the ruble falls, imports become more expensive. But this "crisis" is not even close to be comparable, for example, the crisis of 1998, since then the non-oil exports have been on the order of magnitude smaller than it is now. In the future, thanks to the effect of the devaluation of non-oil exports will be much more competitive (as happened in the 98th), not to mention the fact that domestic energy costs (heating, transport) fall sharply - if we stop exporting oil / gas. So the term was even used the best oil / gas did not sell - we have, and so has a lot to offer in the global market. Admittedly this is not possible with today's regime, of course, that's a separate conversation sad. But let us return to what we have now:
From what they add up 238 billion. Dollars the Russian \ "non-fuel \" export? To begin with, it is 70 billion. Export of services: transport, tourism, financial, consulting, computer, technology, education, construction, etc. It is known, and is generally non-oil exports of Russian high-tech, often Russian companies appear among the world leaders, or have unique competence in the global market of services in their respective industries.
[Color = # 3333FF] No fasting is not enough to talk about all the exporting hundreds of them [/ color], so I will confine myself to the most interesting (large, successful) examples from different areas:
[Color = # 3333FF] 1. Nuclear power. [/ Color]
\ "Rosatom \" - one of the world leaders in the number of nuclear reactors under construction abroad (16% of the world market of services for the construction of nuclear power plants). Russia exports a full cycle of nuclear technology, from design / consulting to turnkey serviced and is involved in nuclear projects in China, Iran, India, Finland, Bangladesh, Jordan, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Turkey, Vietnam, Belarus and Ukraine. Total signed an agreement for the construction of 20 units and the value of the order portfolio reached 74 billion. Dollars in 2013.
[Color = # 3333FF] 2. Financial services [/ color]
Russian forex broker \ "Alpari \" one of the five world's largest forex brokers (according to the rating Forex Magnates), with a turnover of more than 1 trillion. dollars a year. It has subsidiaries in the United States. UK, UAE, China.
The winner of the "Best Forex Broker in Europe - 2013" International Award International Finance Magazine Award.
[Color = # 3333FF] 3. Transport [/ color]
Group of Companies \ "Volga-Dnepr \" - the world leader in the segment of super heavy and oversized air with a turnover of over 1 billion. Dollars. It has branches in the USA, the UK, Ireland, China.
"Sovcomflot" According to the annual rating of 10 leading companies in the world engaged in tanker of the German Institute of Merchant Shipping and Logistics (Institut fürSeeverkehrswirtschaft und Logistik - ISL), on January 1, 2012 Sovcomflot took second place after the Japanese company Mitsui OSK Lines (Rating is based Clarkson Research Services Tanker Register). English Lloyd Sheet (Lloyd's List) in November 2012 announced that Sovcomflot ranked first among the largest deadweight tanker carriers.
[Color = # 3333FF] 4. Exports of services in software development [/ color]
According to the report of analysts RUSSOFT for 2013, the volume of exports rossyskogo software in 2012 amounted to 4.6 bln. Dollars, of which about half is attributable to sales of finished products (of which see. Below), and half - on software development services commissioned. Among them: the company Luxoft, which European Outsourcing Association has recognized outsourcing company in 2011, and awarded her a prize «IT Outsourcing Project of the Year»; DataArt which Business Week magazine named one of the top emerging outsourcing companies in the world.
[Color = # 3333FF] 5. Construction abroad [/ color]
OJSC \ "Mosmetrostroy \" won the tender and built under the Bosphorus Strait in Turkey hydraulic engineering tunnel with a diameter of 6 meters and a length of 3.4 km, is currently in the construction of the metro in Chennai (India) and a high-speed w / d line from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem.
[Color = # 3333FF] 6. Space launches [/ color]
Russia is the world market leader in commercial space launches, satellites in orbit, and loads of people with incomes from this activity about 1 billion dollars a year.
[Color = # 3333FF] 7. Aeronautical Engineering and Consulting [/ color]
Group of Companies \ "Progresstech \" is the leader in Eastern Europe to provide intellectual services to the aerospace and air transport industries. More than 1,000 engineers, "Progresstech" provides engineering services for Russian and foreign developers and manufacturers of aircraft. Since 1998, "Progresstech" actively participated in the creation of all the latest versions of Boeing civilian aircraft (Boeing 777 and 737), as well as in the design of the new Boeing 787 and Boeing 747-8. Provided consulting engineering services within aircraft programs: the Sukhoi Superjet 100, MC-21, Airbus A320, A330, A350, A380; Gulfstream G250, G650; Cessna Columbus; Mitsubishi Regional Jet; Bombardier CSeries, Learjet 85.
Also in the development of the Boeing Company takes part NIK. (500 engineers)
The group \ "Kaskol \" through its engineering center \ "Icarus \ '(200 engineers) is working on the design of aircraft Airbus.
[Color = # 3333FF] 8. Business Analytics & Consulting [/ color]
"Forecast" - an international company with headquarters in Perm has already implemented more than 1,500 projects to implement analytical software for 450 customers in more than 70 countries. Among her clients - the IMF, WHO, Coca-Cola, 3M.
[Color = # 3333FF] 9. Telecommunication services [/ color]
FSUE \ "Satellite Communications \" provides access to the space segment of users from 35 countries and surely one of the ten largest world satellite operators in terms of satellites and orbital slots.
"Rostelecom" yalvyaetsya key performer of several international projects, which play an important role in the transfer of traffic between the countries of Eurasia. In particular, the company launched the system "Transit Europe-Asia» (TEA) with a capacity of up to 3, 2 Tbit / s. It is completely safe ground transcontinental route traffic, an alternative submarine cable systems. Together with three foreign operators "Rostelecom" is involved in the implementation of new large-scale project to build a high-speed transit link "Europe-Persia» (EPEG), capacity of up to 3, 2 Tbit / s, which will connect Europe and the Middle East.
[Color = # 3333FF] 10. Tourist and business travel [/ color]
Russia annually receives millions of tourists and business visitors, their service brings more than 7 billion dollars a year.
[Color = # 3333FF] 11. Metallurgy [/ color]
Export of iron and steel industry reached $ 40 billion.
It including ferrous and nonferrous metals bullion and goods of them. In a number of Russia is a key exporter in the world - on titanium, nickel, aluminum.
For example, JSC "VSMPO-AVISMA" - the world's only fully integrated producer of titanium products - sponges, bars and all types of semi-finished products from titanium alloys. The Corporation operates in the most technologically advanced science-intensive sectors of the global economy - aerospace, energy (including - nuclear), chemical engineering, shipbuilding, medicine and others. Partners of VSMPO-AVISMA - more than 300 companies in 48 countries, including leaders of the world aircraft industry - the first supplier of titanium for AIRBUS INDUSTRIE and the second - for the company BOEING.
[Color = # 3333FF] 12. Chemical Industry [/ color]
Russia - the world leader in the production of synthetic rubber, certain fertilizers and chemicals with an annual export of over 30 billion dollars.
[Color = # 3333FF] 13. Agriculture and food [/ color]
In 2013, exports of agricultural products from Russia amounted to 15 billion dollars. This is mainly cereals - wheat, rice and corn.
[Color = # 3333FF] 14. Weapons [/ color]
Here everything is clear (we know) and so. Russia - the second in the world after the US weapons dealer, for export by 15, 7 billion. Dollars in 2013. The cumulative order backlog as of today - 40 billion. Among the major buyers China, India, Algeria, Venezuela, Vietnam, Indonesia. Major sales are on the line of armored vehicles, air defense systems, combat aircraft / helicopters and naval armaments.
[Color = # 3333FF] 15. Heavy Engineering [/ color]
"Hydraulic": supplies press-forging equipment in the country and abroad Kazakhstan, Belarus, Ukraine, Latvia, Uzbekistan and foreign countries: China, India, Iran, Mongolia, Poland.
"Tyazhmehpress": Voronezh plant for the production of heavy mechanical presses. The largest enterprise in Russia, which develops, manufactures and supplies equipment for the forge and sheet-stamping productions and workshops. Currently, the plant is fully captured the world market supply of heavy crank hot presses; 15 KGSHP force of over 12,000 ton, issued five firms 7 presses manufactured factory "Tyazhmehpress"; 27 8000 ton presses, issued by the same firms 5th, 14 presses manufactured factory "Tyazhmehpress." Consumers of products is the United States, France, Italy, Spain, Japan, South Korea, China, and so on. D. Exports goes from 70 to 95% produced by the press.
Transmashholding: JSC Transmashholding manufactures locomotives, electric locomotives, railcars, marine / locomotive diesel engines; products are exported to the CIS countries, Poland, Germany, Bulgaria, Vietnam, Syria. The annual amount - $ 500 million.
"Uralmash": heavy cranes, excavators, mining, drilling, metallurgical equipment, which is available in 42 countries, including Japan. Korea, India, China, Finland, Germany, Poland and others.
[Color = # 3333FF] 16. Shipbuilding [/ color]
Severnaya Verf - supply vessels for Norwegian drilling platforms
"Red Sormovo", "Red Barricades" - Caspian tankers for Kazakhstan, Iran.
Volgograd Shipyard - In 2003-2006. built a series of bulk carriers for the Turkish company "Palmali". In 2005, the British Royal Society of Naval Architects bulk carriers of this project recognizes the unique and important ship of the year. It was also performed a series of 4 bulk carriers for the Iranian company.
[Color = # 3333FF] 17. Aviation [/ color]
"Sukhoi Superjet 100" - short-haul airliner, today exported 12 aircraft firm orders for export - more than 50.
Holding "Helicopters of Russia" - a global manufacturer №1 in the segment of medium-and heavy helicopters. In monetary terms - 14% of the world helicopter market.
As of 2013 the enterprises of the holding "Helicopters of Russia" made 35% of the world fleet of combat helicopters, 74% of the world fleet of super-heavy helicopters maximum takeoff weight of 20 tons and 56% of the world fleet moderate helicopters maximum takeoff weight of 8 to 15 tons. More than four hundred firm orders from abroad.
[Color = # 3333FF] 18. Optics [/ color]
In Russia there are a number of manufacturers producing telescopes and optics for export - "Intes", "INTEROPTIC", "Astrosib" Lytkarino Plant (LZOS).
For example, in the period since 1994 of LZOS manufactured optical components with diameters from 500 mm to 2300 mm in the framework of more than 20 international projects: The main mirror diameter of 2 meters for three telescopes of the Royal Greenwich Observatory (UK); set of astronomical mirrors for the Chinese Academy of Space Technology; primary mirror telescope with a diameter 1, 23 meters to the Heidelberg Max Planck Institute (Germany); the main mirror of the telescope diameter of 2, 6 meters for the project VST (Italy); primary mirror telescope with a diameter 2, 3 meters for the National Observatory in Athens
[Color = # 3333FF] 19. Instruments, scientific equipment [/ color]
- Novosibirsk Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) is known for a variety of applications rulers installations Low dose from medical scanners and security to industrial accelerators. The bulk of innovative products INP goes abroad. For example, the main customers in more than 180 accelerators supplied institution serving the United States, Korea, India, Poland and other countries, 40 plants acquired Bole China. Manufacture and supply of equipment worth more than $ 100 million for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2013 Evropu.V INP synchrotron was built in the United States. NT-MTD - a world leader in scanning probe microscopes
- Diakont major producer of instruments for nondestructive inspection and maintenance of pipelines. We sell products in the US, Japan, Europe.
- Intron - flaw detection and control services for building structures
[Color = # 3333FF] 20. Boxed software [/ color]
Kaspersky: anti-virus software. An international group of companies headquartered in Moscow and offices in the UK, Germany, France, USA, Japan, South Korea, China, the Netherlands, Poland and Romania. The partner network includes over 500 companies in more than 60 countries. Included in the top five leading software developers to protect information from Internet threats.
ABBYY: text-recognition software, translators.
ABBYY group of companies includes 9 international offices in Russia, USA, Germany, Great Britain, Japan, Taiwan, Ukraine and Cyprus, the Russian high-tech translation agency ABBYY Language Services (Perevedem.ru) and Publishing ABBYY Press. The head office of ABBYY, based in Moscow, is responsible for product development and coordination of the company's offices in other countries. ABBYY products in the world uses about 30 million people in 130 countries, the technology used in its products the leading market players, document management and data entry -DELL, EPSON, Fujitsu, HP, Lexmark, Microtek, Panasonic, Siemens Nixdorf (Germany), Samsung Electronics, and many others.
Acronis: Backup system. It has 17 offices around the world, the number of licenses sold more than 2 million. Major clients - Cisco Systems, Lufthansa, McKinsey & Company, Oracle, Siemens, Novell, General Electric, Bayer and many others. Key developments take place in Moscow.
[Color = # 3333FF] 21. Machine tools [/ color]
"SKIF" - manufacturer Belgorodsky cutters unique diamond coating that is used for non-ferrous metals. Used international manufacturers aeroksomicheskogo complex. - Industrial Lasers export several companies ...
For example IPG Photonics - an international corporation founded in 1991 in Russia and owned by Russians, manufactures industrial laser medium and high power.
The company is among the three leading manufacturers of industrial lasers, capitalization exceeds $ 1 billion, in the segment of heavy-duty lasers - a monopolist.
[Color = # 3333FF] 22. Consumer Goods [/ color]
Winter clothing BASK - exported to 12 countries (United Kingdom, Canada. Skandinovskie country). Top haytechnye winter jackets, as for me. Even Lebedev like. "Wimm-Bill-Dann" - a major exporter of baby food and beverages in the CIS.
- Furniture (eg factory "Photon»)
- Armored cars
[Color = # 3333FF] 23. Electrical engineering [/ color]