A selection of facts from the life of the world-famous inventor by the name of Mikhail Kalashnikov, who became famous thanks to the development of one of the best machines used in our days. Read more.
Mikhail Kalashnikov was born on November 10, 1919 in the village of Kuria Altai Territory in a large peasant family. Already as a child Michael was interested in technology and, according to him, have long suffered at the idea of creating a perpetual motion machine.
In 1938 Kalashnikov was drafted into the Red Army and after graduating junior commanders in the divisional school received a specialty of the driver of the tank. Already in the period of military service Kalashnikov proved himself an inventor. He improved the design of the tank, among other things, having made a device for firing a pistol TT through the cracks in the tank turret.
Great Patriotic War senior sergeant Mikhail Kalashnikov began as a tank commander. In October 1941, under the Bryansk, he was seriously wounded and shell-shocked. After this event occurred, determine further activity designer. As with the other wounded in the enemy's rear, they made their way to her, almost the entire squad with automatic weapons shot the Nazis. Kalashnikov with two companions escaped being sent to investigate. Since then, it did not leave the idea that the presence of these machines and the outcome of the battle would have been different. And this weapon he decided to create.
The photo Senior sergeant Mikhail Kalashnikov.
Already in the hospital Kalashnikov began to make drawings of new weapons, work on it while he continued to leave the wounded to the depot at the station Matai in Kazakhstan, where he worked to the army. There was created a valid sample of a new submachine gun, modified later in Moscow. Although the results of testing a new machine showed no advantages over the prior art when PPD and PCA (SMGs Degtyareva and Shpagin), and neither he nor further by gunsmith machine gun and a semi-automatic rifle in the production did not go, but the master was seen and acquired the necessary experience, and his weapon has attracted attention for its design and layout.
In 1945 Kalashnikov participated in the competition to build the machine chambered sample in 1943, and after the test in 1947, the design of its weapons recognized as the best. The following year it was decided to produce a pilot batch of AK in Izhevsk, and was sent to Kalashnikov. After the release of an experimental batch of mass production launched at the Izhevsk Machine-Building Plant, where there was a huge experience of developing new weapons. From now on, the name is forever linked with the Kalashnikov "Izhmash".
By the time of the transition to mass production of AK in 1949 in its design it was made hundreds of changes, facilitating the production .--- Since then left for several generations of these weapons.
When developing machines of the first generation (AK, AK-47, AKS-47) has solved the problem of adaptation of a powerful hand-automatic weapons under the intermediate cartridge - between the pistol and rifle - 7, 62h39, at that time it was a big breakthrough in the arms.
The second generation of machines (AKM, AKMS, AKMN) appeared as a result of modernization in the direction of increasing the accuracy of fire and manufacturability. Automatic generation of mass-produced and replaced the previously operated by the sub-machine guns (PCA PPP), machine guns and rifles.
Third generation (AK-74, AKS-74 and their modifications) replaced the second, machines have been developed under the cartridge caliber reduced 5, 45h39. AK-74 has a half times greater wearable ammunition without increasing its weight. In the early 1990's. When it became more urgent introduction of firearms electronic and optoelectronic technology, it was established AKS-74U with a laser sight "Canada-O».
The fourth generation began with the AK-74M, which had all the features of previous machines.
But it is on its base in the era of conversion in the early 90s of last century began the development of machines at once under fire three rounds:
- AK101, AK102 under standardized NATO countries chuck 5, 56h45;
- AK103, AK104 chambered 7, 62h39;
- AK105 chambered 5, 45h39.
Changed and designations: if earlier figures indicate the year of development, now numbers machines "hundredth series" is a serial number of models of weapons. --- Advantages machines "hundredth series": more durable assembly locking smaller recoil momentum, the best accuracy of automatic fire, the use of plastic for resistance to environmental influences, folding butt, the ability to install without adaptations grenade launcher (AK101 and AK103).
Recent developments in this generation - AK107 and AK108. The first cartridge designed for 5, 45h39, the second - under the "NATO" chuck 5, 56h45. When resemblance to the AK-74M have different structural scheme and the principle of automation. In particular, the process of moving parts in these models is shorter than the base and have a different geometry window ejector sleeve as a result of the rate of fire in an automatic mode, a third higher.
But the main difference between the two models - the principle of balanced automation. The main principle of the AK-107 and AK-108 - use of energy of powder combustion gases, when part of the gas is directed from the barrel bore to the gas engine. The gas chamber has more than one working cylinder and a piston, as before, but two cylinders and two pistons, while the opposite movement of the pistons is synchronized by means of gears. Because of this reduced recoil device.
When shooting in a mode of "3" (a short burst of three rounds with a cut-off) a special device after three rounds intercepts the trigger and hold it until you press the trigger. As a result of this construction, the new models provide automatic increase accuracy of fire from the unstable situation in the 1, 5 - 2 times compared to the AK-74M.
In addition to the machines, based on the AK-47 designed and produced many models of machine guns, among them - hand, easel and tank model. On the machine guns and the ability to use night scopes. But that's not all: on the basis of an AK-47 created a series of hunting carbines "Saiga", and submachine gun "Bison", designed by the son of Mikhail Kalashnikov - Victor.
Designers "Izhmash" continue to develop weapons of Kalashnikov and it certainly. a long time will have a better status. According to Russian and foreign specialists, only a Kalashnikov assault rifle will be used in the armed forces as an unrivaled small arms at least until 2025.
Thus, at the Izhevsk plant under the personal leadership of Mikhail Kalashnikov developed dozens of samples of automatic weapons. It is difficult even to designate the technical limits and scope of the use of weapons that are based on AC systems.
Today, AK - the most famous and popular weapon in the world. It is in service with more than 50 countries, six states have placed it on their coat of arms. AK - a symbol of the valor of the Russian army and the main symbol of the city of Izhevsk gunsmiths.
Mikhail Kalashnikov was truly a legend. He has plenty of state awards, scientific ranks - today he is an honorary member of 14 academies. He is still in the public spotlight, talks to the media, meeting with guests and Udmurtia Izhevsk, participates in international symposiums and conferences. He has published five books of memoirs.
World renown Kalashnikov confirms that a person can achieve harmony and perfection in his life of hard work for the benefit of his native country. High target consistently created this courageous and hardworking character, in which a surprising combination of fame and humility, and simplicity of genius.