Overturn facts

Intriguing refute the facts that have been known for many years, but thanks to scientific progress, were no longer relevant.

1. Old fact: Pluto - the planet. The new fact is that Pluto is not a planet.






Until then, some people believed that after Uranus there is another, the ninth planet - Pluto. This opinion has existed since the late 19th century.
In 1906, the famous scientist Percival Lowell (Percival Lowell), who founded the observatory named after himself, has launched research projects, the main aim of which was the discovery of the mysterious planet.
In 1923, a young researcher Clyde Tombaugh (Clyde Tombaugh) discovered the planet "X". He was instructed to scrutinize all moving objects and compare them with images of the starry sky.
As a result, 23-year-old man presented to the experts Harvard College Observatory their discovery.
The name of the new planet was due to the 11-year-old girl from England (Pluto - Roman god of the underworld). Thus, Pluto was included in the composition of our Solar System.
However, in 2003, we are told by representatives of NASA astronomer managed to find one outside Pluto's much larger object, which he decided to give the name of Eris.
This event has generated a lot of controversial issues, chief among which was the - so that the planet can be called a planet? But, in more detail by analyzing the available information, the researchers came to the conclusion that neither Eris or Pluto are not really planets.

2. Old fact: the hardest natural material on earth - it is a diamond.

New fact: most solid in the world of matter - is cubic boron nitride.




On the ground, there are two substances that are harder than diamond. We are talking about boron nitride (stronger than a diamond of 18 percent) and Lonsdale (harder gemstone 58 percent).
But these substances are quite rare in nature. However, to be perfectly honest, the authors of this study have not been able yet fully prove their calculations in practice.
Thus, the discovery of truth so far only in theory.
It is worth noting that there is another contender for the title of the solids. Researchers chemical densified boron nitride particles to create a "super hard CBN».
It was pretty simple, because they just divided them into its constituent components. As a result, this has led to the fact that women around the world have ordered wedding rings made of this material, because such rings exactly scrapie Union forever.

3. Old fact: The evolutionary relationship between man and other primates is lost forever.

New fact: A "Ida»




Scientists say that "Ida" - this is important, previously missing link in the chain of evolution from ape to man. In 2003, German paleontologist Jorn Hurum (Jorn Hurum) and a team of researchers discovered a very well-preserved ancient remains, dating back at least 47 million years.
Remains named Ida. This ancient primates and thus became the missing link in the transition evolutionary movement ape to man and the lemur, a distant relative of humans.
Scientifically called Ida «Darwiniusmasillae», which literally stands for "creature of Darwin Messel." Skeleton individuals like the skeleton of a lemur, she also present general primate traits, such as the location of a separate thumb, short limbs, a complete lack of claws.
Thus, Ida helped to fill the huge gap that existed in the theory of evolution.

5. Old fact: Fold a sheet of paper of all sizes in more than seven times impossible.

New fact: The Record - 11 times.




This hearing is very long lived in the scientific community, as well as in the arts. It was able to dispel the usual schoolgirl from California. Gellivan Britney (Britney Gallivan) and a few enthusiasts bought a great big roll of toilet paper for $ 85 and managed to fold it 11 times.
Smart girl realized that those who tried to refute her old fact, changed the direction of folding paper. Schoolgirl even managed to derive an equation made up taking into account the thickness and width of a particular paper.
In 2006, Britney made a presentation on the Convention of Teachers of Mathematics, and a year later was awarded a degree in ecology. Now, she often appears in the known transmission channel Discovery «Mythbusters».

5. Old fact: The only man-made structures, noticeable from space - is the Great Wall of China.

New fact: In fact, many buildings erected by man can be seen as something from outer space. But formally, such statements have never been true. Such rumors are walking from the end of the 30s of the 20th century.




No matter what the Chinese astronaut in 2003 still managed to disprove this myth. According to NASA Yang Liwei (Yang Liwei) said that was not able to see the Great Wall from space.
After this statement, the network began to be disclosed various pictures which show that under certain conditions, you can still see the outline of the wall. Moreover, they say that you can also see the main roads of major cities, lights cities, airports, bridges, dams and airports. Speculation that the moon is also possible to see the earth structures were only ridiculous speculation. According to a member of the crew Apollo 12 astronaut Alan Bean (Alan Bean), the only thing that can be seen from the moon - is a huge blue ball, immersed in clouds with yellow spots deserts and green islands of vegetation.
It is likely that talk about the visibility of terrestrial objects from space mean the Earth's orbit, but that's another story that has to outer space is irrelevant.

6. Old fact: There are only five classifications of species to kingdoms: plants, animals, fungi, bacteria and protozoa.

New fact: Today, all evidence suggests that biological kingdoms, and at least eight.



Each year, opening up new kinds of living beings. The more, the more difficult to assign them to a specific realm. In addition to those already mentioned kingdom was revealed kingdom "Archaea", which was previously combined with the kingdom of bacteria.
At first glance it may seem that the ancient bacteria (archaea) are treated just like any other single-celled (eubacteria). But in fact, when we look, everything is much more complicated.
There is a very complex system of dividing into two major eubacteria kingdom.

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