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Cockroaches have strongly bent (gipognaticheskuyu) head covered at the top front edge of the pronotum. Antennae long, bristle, eyes well developed, there are simple eyes. Predna leathery wings (elytra), with a simple longitudinal veining, rear fenders with rich veining mesh, fan-fold in the rest. Fly badly and reluctantly, in many species the wings are shortened or completely reduced. Legs strong, begatelnye with large basin, seated spiked foot 5-segmented. End of abdomen with short articulate the church. The abdomen of males often odorous glands copulatory organs are asymmetrical.
The abdomen of the female ends sternite VII, called the genital plate that covers the bottom of the genital chamber. The latter is formed by invagination VIII sternum with the ovipositor. It should be noted that the extinct cockroaches ovipositor was outside the body. Ripe eggs enter the camera and stick together genital secret special glands, forming ootheca. In ootheca is from 15 to 40 eggs, its shape and surface sculpture species-specific. Some kinds of dump ootheca almost immediately after its formation (American cockroach), others wear it on the end of the abdomen almost to the moment of hatching, the fry (cockroach), the third ootheca is in the genital chamber and hatching takes place right there, which is a typical ovoviviparity (Madagascar cockroach) . In the latter case, the eggs obtained necessary substances from the mother's body.
The transformation is incomplete. The larvae undergo 5-9 molts, small species evolve faster close for the full development may need a year or more. Life expectancy - from 1 year to 7 years.
All cockroaches are nocturnal, hiding during the day in different cavities and wells. Kolichesvo largest species live in the tropics, mainly associated with rainforests. Many species-detritophages matter how active destroyers of litter and decaying wood. Far relict cockroach and other species feed on rotten wood, have a symbiotic protozoa in the gut that help them to digest cellulose. These kinds of cockroaches Cryptocercus, live in colonies, are very close to public life.
Some synanthropic cockroaches (eg, cockroach, black beetle) have a very broad, almost universally spread, meeting in the northern latitudes only in the heated rooms. In the southern countries, many homes inhabited by tropical species, some of which reach the size of a mouse. Cockroaches are imported with food and goods, this process is more and more actively to the development of trade. According to some reports, in heated storage rooms and basements in Moscow already there are about 30 species of cockroaches. Cockroaches do not just eat food and polluting their excrement, leaving an unpleasant odor, but are also a possible cause of allergies.
Cockroaches are among the oldest insect known since the Carboniferous period, and are very common in ancient sediments. In the world today there are about 3600 species, mostly in the tropics and subtropics. In the CIS, there are 55 species. The Baikal region known only synanthropic species. Large black beetle (Blatta orientalis) more hygrophilous, has a long development cycle, so now very rare.
This winged cockroach male, female is wingless. In recent years, in Irkutsk and Angarsk in basements and industrial buildings celebrated South Asian (Vietnamese) cockroach (Periplaneta australasiae), a close relative of the American cockroach.
However, Vietnamese cockroach slimmer and smaller, wingless females.
The heated rooms completely dominated by red beetle or cockroach (Blattella germanica). Finally, as exotic animals or forage crops we breed several species of tropical cockroaches.