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System Perimeter Index ASU RVSN - 15E601 - a set of automatic control massaging nuclear retaliation created in the Soviet Union at the height of the Cold War. Designed to provide a guaranteed starter mine ICBMs and SLBMs that if as a result of the application of crushing the enemy nuclear attack on the USSR will be destroyed all units of the Strategic Missile Forces command that can give the order to counter attack. The system is the only one existing in the world Doomsday Machine (weapons assured retaliation), the existence of which was officially confirmed. The system is still classified and could still be on the alert, so any information about it can not be confirmed as a uniquely authentic or disproved, and should be treated with the necessary degree of skepticism. [next]
To make it clearer what is at stake, let's fantasize on the topic of Yom Kippur. But look at the future is not out of the current year and, say, 1985, when we were different, and everything that could happen in a decade, it seems a little different than is seen today.
So our near future. Imagine that it happens, for instance, in 2010. The world is still divided into two camps. The arms race waged by the Soviet Union and the United States, spread to outer space. Thousands of ballistic missiles with nuclear warheads are in constant readiness. That one, then the other parts of the world armed conflicts erupt. Whoever is involved in local wars, always behind their backs looming superpower.
A small incident in the center of Europe, on the border between East and West Germany, led to a new aggravation of tensions. The ensuing recriminations further escalate the situation. The forces of NATO and the Warsaw Pact have come to the forefront. From left dozens of locations of submarines with nuclear missiles, to be dissolved in the depths of the oceans. On starting positions of ballistic missiles was feverish preparations for launch. The world is again on the verge of World War II.
The first could not stand the nerves of the United States. After an emergency meeting of the National Security Council, the US President signed a directive on the implementation of the plan "Freedom". This plan called for the massive use of nuclear weapons by the US military against the Soviet Union.
Not yet had time to dry the ink on the document signed by the president, as the worldwide sirens sounded, the soldiers rushed to their planes, missiles, tanks. Thirty minutes later from bases in the UK and Italy kicked off the first "Pershing". Along with the submarine were released hundreds of "Trident", and from bases in the United States - thousands of intercontinental ballistic missiles. They were joined by cruise missiles from strategic bombers B-52 flew along the borders of the Eastern bloc. American submarines killer attacked Soviet submarines with ballistic missiles on board, depriving the Soviet Union the possibility to defend themselves.
Hitting the Soviet Union and its allies was unexpected and devastating. Thousands lit deadly suns in the vast expanses of the planet, tornadoes swept fire everything in its path. Cities around the world in ruins. Enemy missiles and bombs struck and destroyed all the command centers of the Soviet Armed Forces and the Warsaw Pact, airbases strategic aviation, mine launchers of intercontinental ballistic missiles, space-based armored forces. Were put out of action all communication lines. Tens of millions of people were killed and hundreds of millions had to die in the coming days. Those who survived this nightmare turned out to be demoralized and could not offer any resistance to the enemy. There was no one to give the order to counter attack. Blitzkrieg on American success ... But on the banks of the Rhine and the Potomac happy so long impressive victory. Two hours after the start of hostilities, when it seemed that had nothing and, most importantly, there is no one to fight, in a remote Siberian taiga, in the Kazakh steppes, in the swamps of central Russia almost simultaneously opened the hatches of silo launchers, and looking at the sky dozens of silver giants . Another thirty minutes later the fate of Moscow and Leningrad, Kiev and Minsk, Berlin and Prague, Beijing and Havana have divided Washington and New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco, Bonn and London, Paris and Rome, Sydney and Tokyo.
Suddenly it began, nuclear war was over as suddenly, destroying all. There were no winners or losers. Only a small group of people do not understand somewhere in the Pacific islands, in remote areas of Africa and Latin America frantically twisted the handle again smolkshih radios, fearfully watching the blazing summer lightning on the horizon.
At its core, perimeter system is an alternative command system for all types of troops, armed with nuclear warheads. It was created as a backup system in case the key nodes of command and communication lines Kazbek Strategic Missile Forces will be destroyed by the first blow, in accordance with the concept developed in the United States limited nuclear war. In order to ensure the implementation of its role the system was originally designed as a fully automatic in the case of a massive attack is able to decide on a retaliatory strike on their own, without (or with minimal) rights. The existence of such a system in the West is called immoral, but it is essentially the only deterrent to giving the real guarantee of failure of a potential enemy of the concept of preventive crushing blow.
The complex missile command (15P011) System "Perimeter" (15E601) with a rocket 15A11
WAR ON "Perimeter»
Just think about a nuclear war had the potential to become a reality - for you and me and for millions of people. Since it is thus seen strategists of the Ministry of Defense scenario in the event of a surprise attack. On the one hand, it certainly was a brutal scenario. But on the other hand, the only way it was possible to cool hot heads in practice, proving that in a future war, in principle, can not and should not be winners. Only such an argument might make useless war, and, therefore, impossible.
In fairness it should be noted that in the United States thought in approximately the same way. Therefore, the Americans were similar work, and that the Soviet Union did not have the temptation to first deliver a crushing blow.
At the beginning 70s, given the real possibility of highly effective methods of jamming potential enemy combat control SMF has become very urgent problem of guaranteed bring combat orders from the highest levels of management (the General Staff of the USSR Armed Forces, the Office of Strategic Missile Forces) to command and separate launchers for strategic missiles standing on alert in case of emergency.
The idea to use for this purpose in addition to the existing communication channels command a special rocket equipped with a powerful radio transmitter runs in the special period, and gave the command to launch all missiles that are on duty throughout the USSR.
Development of a special command-missile system, dubbed the "Perimeter", was set CB "Southern" decision of the government of the USSR N695-227 of 30 August 1974. As a basic rocket originally planned to use rocket MR-UR100 (15A15), later halted rocket MR-UR100 UTT (15A16). Modified regarding the missile control system received index 15A11.
As conceived by the creators of "Perimeter" system could make training and missile launch, even in the case if all the dead and give the order would be no one left. It is this component and became informally known as "dead hand".
When you create a new system of governance Strategic Missile Forces had to answer two important questions. Firstly: how to make soulless automation to understand that her time had come? Second: how to enable it to be included at the very moment when it is needed, not earlier or later? Naturally, there were other issues - may not be so important individually, but collectively the global.
Create a reliable system with similar parameters daunting. However, the wizards of the Soviet military-industrial complex have been able to come up with a scheme of Armageddon, that he himself was scared. But on the other hand, there has been a pride of professionals who did what they had to do and no one failed. But how?
Any missile equipped with a nuclear warhead in particular, can take off only if the respective order. In peacetime, during shooting practice (with a mock warhead instead of the real warhead), it happens to ordinary simple. At the command lines of communication command is transmitted to the start, then removed all the locks given engine ignition, and the missile is carried away into the distance. However, in a real combat situation, when a different kind of noise do it would be much more difficult. As in the hypothetical scenario of a sudden nuclear attack, which we brought to the beginning of the article, the link may be disabled, and people who had the authority to give a decisive order - destroyed. But you never know what might happen in the chaos that is sure there would be after a nuclear attack?
The logic of action "dead hand" involves regular gathering and processing huge amounts of data. From various sensors acted very different information. For example, the state of the lines due to a higher command post: there is a connection - there is no connection. Radiation situation in the surrounding areas: the normal radiation levels - elevated levels of radiation. The presence on the starting position of people: there are people - there are no people. About the registered nuclear explosions and so on and so forth.
"Dead Hand" had the ability to analyze the changes in the military and political situation in the world - the system evaluates the commands received over a certain period of time, and on this basis can be concluded that in the world that something is wrong. In short, it was a clever thing. When the system is believed that her time had come, she stepped up and run commands to start the preparation of missiles.
While the "dead hand" could not begin active operations in peacetime. Even if there was no connection, even if the entire combat crew left the starting position, there was still plenty of other options that would block the system.
Yamantau Mountain range where the indoor city Mezhgore (al. The name "Kuz-Elga", "Kuzelga", "Ufa-105", "Sun", "Beloretsk-16"), which is part of the command structure of the «dead hand».
The system works
In peacetime, the main components of the system are in stand-by mode, to monitor the situation and processing incoming data from the measuring stations. In the event of the threat of a large-scale attack using nuclear weapons, the confirmed data of early missile attack warning system is automatically on alert and begins to track the operational situation. If the sensor system components with sufficient reliability confirm the massive nuclear strike, and the system for a long time (probably at least a couple of hours) loses communication with the main command RVSN units, it initiates the launch of several missiles command. They planned to use in the event that completely interrupted the connection between the command and missile units, scattered across the country. It was then expected to order from the General Staff in Moscow or alternate command post in Leningrad at the start 15A11. The rocket was supposed to start from the Kapustin Yar, or from a mobile launcher, fly over those areas of Belarus, Ukraine, Russia and Kazakhstan, where deployed missile parts, and give them a team to take off. which, flying over its territory, broadcast by a set of powerful transmitters on board the control signal, and the starter code for all the components of the nuclear triad - silo and mobile launchers complexes, nuclear submarine and strategic aviation. Reception apparatus as the Strategic Missile Forces command posts and individual launchers, taking the signal, begins the process of immediate launch of ballistic missiles in the fully automatic mode, providing warranty retaliate against the enemy, even in the case of the death of all personnel.
November 3, 1984 team tested a rocket 15A11, established in Dnepropetrovsk, in the KB "South" missile command instructs the preparation and launch from Baikonur R-36M (15A14) - which later became the legendary "Satan." But then everything happened as usual: "Satan" took off, climbed into space, separated from her training warhead that hit the training target on the Kura testing range on the Kamchatka Peninsula.
After putting on combat duty and occasionally worked as a set used in the course of command and staff exercises. In December 1990 on arms it was adopted by the modernized system, called Perimeter DC, who worked until June 1995, when under the agreement the START-1 complex was removed from combat duty. The current state of complex systems is not known, presumably, he preserved until the expiration of the START-1, which will come on Dec. 9, 2009, after which, perhaps, this unique complex will be returned to combat duty.
According to unconfirmed reports, the system has already been returned to duty in 2001 or 2003.
The Western press over the system got the name «dead hand»