The Russian government has pledged by 2020 completely solve the problem of bad roads. For these purposes only in 2011, Vladimir Putin has promised to allocate 700 billion rubles. Complaints Road to underfunding longer irrelevant, and now in front of them, you can safely put the issue of corruption and efficiency. "PP" a unique opportunity: one of the leaders of the Ural DRSU great friendship agreed to introduce our correspondent in their work teams. "Master classes" were disappointing: under the current business unit of good roads in Russia will never happen.
9 photo + letter via Vladimir Antipin
- Ladies, today you're in luck. I'm the guy you brought to the team. You can enjoy the full program.
Burly redhead in yellow baseball cap that delivers me to rent a road worker - is Stepanovich. He has a serious position in the company, engaged in the construction and repair of roads in the Sverdlovsk region. Under the experimental conditions one - no shooting. If his company to calculate any contract it is no longer seen.
- A couple of days in a repair crew to work with. Then the quarry or asphalt plant. Got it?
- Got it.
The ladies look at me not only with the women's curiosity. They wonder whose I protege. A man from the fall in the road company is practically impossible. First, the salary is good. Second, even on the lowest level, there is a regular source of income left. Third, the uninitiated do not need to know how to actually repaired the road. Travel business in most cases - for their own. At all levels, from government officials distributing budgetary orders, and ending with the rank and file workers.
- Today you have a very simple - patching. There is special not mind.
Stepanych jumps into the jeep and disappears in a cloud of dust. In the Urals, it has long plus twenty - it's time to plug the holes in the pavement, formed over the winter.
My team only three people. Two women and a deep forty smiling driver Sanya. The task is really simple: a truck stops at each detected pit, and the three of us should quickly cast aside its asphalt. It seems to be.
- You're the guy wearing sneakers in vain, - one of the women disapproving looks at my shoes. - For the first time, is it? Gaal, let him tarpaulin Borkinu.
- What's the difference?
- Now you'll see - comes into the conversation the driver of Sanya. - All right, we drove. Asphalt freezes!
The work turned out to be really simple, and boots are extremely necessary. Once discovered a pit filled with asphalt, it must be compacted. Nogami.
- Galina, a skating rink is not better?
- You do not ask stupid questions. Let's jump, jump.
I feel like an idiot at first, then an Indian yogi, jumping on hot coals, because the boots still hot. Past sweeping machine. From the windows of passing minibuses in three people in orange vests, hard depicting rink, indifferently watching fellow citizens.
Surreal enthusiasm for what is happening is replaced by bouts of shame. Calms only that, even if, instead of canvas upper pit zakonopachival Borkinoy rink, the end result is to have not changed much: the asphalt that we have to stamp, do not like on the pavement. This is by and large normal small stone to appear bathed in strange liquid, vaguely reminiscent of bitumen.
In the evening Stepanych explain that every pothole real ice rink still runs. Five times. On paper, that road builders necessarily provide the customer as a report on the work done. With this same reporting situation is no less mysterious than the roller-ghost. Patching, which we are now engaged in sort of legally non-existent. None of the document is no such thing. There is a common line in the budget "Current repair and maintenance of the road." Here under it and allocated budget. And each organization has independently decided that under this understanding.
It is convenient to all interested parties. Once the meaning of the words "repairs and maintenance" does not decrypted, there is no criteria by which you can check whether they are made qualitatively. As a result, the official allocated funds, we jumped Galina Ivanovna, head of scattered figures on pieces of paper - a ritual observed, money disbursed, everyone is happy. In addition to those who go down this road.
Upahatsya to patching, which themselves roadster called the "hole", to me, by the way, did not succeed. For change we rolled into the ground just two cars. This work began in the evening, when the remnants of asphalt, we were taken to one of the private houses. His owner needed a playground in front of the house, and he just "solved the problem" with the driver Sanya. In contrast to the officials, the owner personally oversaw the process of paving. From the depths of the road trailer immediately come hand-skating rink. After the change of Sanya pulled me aside and handed over 300 rubles - my share. Well I'm now in a team.
How to cut a million
- Today, the work is interesting. Full reconstruction of the roadway. I love you from hand to hand the foreman offered. He is aware of the theme: honest and will tell all.
Today will repair the street in a suburb of Yekaterinburg. Stepanych company works with all levels of the budget. That is, "spud", and municipal and provincial, and federal roads. With municipal Stepanych communicates personally. The level of the area - it is one of the owners of the company. With Moscow's issues "decides" specially trained people for the same percentage of the contract. Without kickbacks order can not be obtained. At all. It's the law. If you're lucky, you can get rid of a tenth of the amount allocated to the road. If not, you can get to the "inhuman" 25%.
Firm Stepanych no luck. Following the appointment of the new governor of the money went through a new government friendly road company. Now it gets a solid contract. But as a "friendly companies" no sufficient experience nor the right amount of equipment and experts, it is stupid to take subcontracting normal road maintenance, including company Stepanych. However, leaving himself 20% of the contract amount. It is common in Russia overbearing business - to create an intermediary parasite to existing resources or financial flows. The only difference is that in some areas so officials are working with the forest, in others - with the grain, in the third - with the asphalt, and most of all - with all at once.
With me today are lucky foreman. Sergei phlegmatic man is a philosopher: and the education (he graduated from the Philosophy Faculty of the Ural State University), and in life.
- The construction of the road itself is important process. The end result is secondary, - says mysteriously philosopher orange vest. - While we are working, at all the case, and that the work has always been, it is necessary to do bad. In short, you will be responsible for the fences. Your task - that's the time to carry iron fences, so that people are not running to the technique.
Before lunch special technique will cut asphalt on the section of road eight meters in length. But cut him with only the left lane on the right to continue intensive movement. Fences have to carry along the road milling machine movement with an interval of 10-15 minutes to buses not interfere with the machine, and the machine special equipment. An hour later, silently I begin to hate all drivers. Cruising with a fence on the shoulder between the moving cars not comme il faut.
From a passing "Mazda" pops discontented face and three-story floor-mat explains to me the meaning of my existence in this world. I want to give a face. I told him then repaired the road, and he also maketh. An hour later I cease to respond to the cries of motorists and generally to any movement on the part of the roadway. It is not I throw them under the wheels, and they rush to my fence. Apparently, my face is also changing, because the mat is no longer heard.
After wiping out the old asphalt we are, in theory, we will have to "restore the underlying layer," that is to replace the old gravel road and then roll up the asphalt. At least that is written in the official papers. In fact, no one to restore the underlayment and not going.
- And we have no money for it - explains during a break Sergey. The command "show and tell everything as it is", he took literally. - First, twenty percent of the contract itself contractors left, then we overcame our part. On the restoration of the road according to GOST no money left.
- So what now?
- And now we are, roughly speaking, instead of ten centimeters of asphalt cutter cut off five. Crushed no changes. Top new asphalt. To save instead of bitumen - emulsion. She took on the cheap. Really for a penny, because it is overdue. Asphalt in our case, too, I would not call quality. Also take on the cheap, still no check. Just no one and nothing. For example, a device that can measure the density of the road surface, is not less than one hundred thousand. What else? Oh, yeah. Rink instead of five times one passes. Fuel economy and wages machinist.
- And how much so can naekonomit?
- To be honest, half the amount. Therefore, the performance of our business is very important. The sooner do the less to pay workers' wages.
- The quality of both?
- Nothing. Well I say, in our case the main thing - the process. The result is secondary.
In the course of a philosophical conversation, I know a dozen ways to save on road maintenance. For example, there is a concept - "gravity layer." This is when the middle of the track should be a little higher than the sides, so that rain water flowed on the sidelines. Accordingly, in the middle requires more gravel and asphalt. And more time to comply with all technologies. Needless to say, this "gravity layer" exists only on paper but in reality - a flat road on which water accumulates. It flows into all the cracks and freezes in winter and breaks the roadway inside.
It is also possible to save on the quality of almost all materials. No one checks to see which faction rubble brought to a particular section of road, and whether it meets those specified in the documentation. Moreover, the same traffic object requiring reconstruction can take place in several repair targeted programs: at the level of the municipality, and at the regional level and at the level of the Federation. And all three levels allocate money for it. As a result, work is done once, and paid for it three times. Of course, such a combination is only possible as a result of the collusion of all stakeholders.
- Well, the main thing - the lunch break ends Brigadier-philosopher - in contracts for the repair and maintenance of roads is one point everything and bridges, and the web, and traffic lights, and livnevki and maintenance of pavements. Without detailing. That is not exactly painted these three rubles on livnevki, these two - on the pavement, and these - the bulb on for traffic. It is assumed that we must decide how much and where. God himself ordered to smear and to hide the full amount. And if suddenly someone will ask, why then a piece of the track unfinished, we may boldly say, but to make a bridge.
- And often ask?
- That's the happiness that does not. And if suddenly a miracle happens and was coming any checkout issues with checking "solve" the comrades who twenty percent retracement at the top have. However, sometimes the system is faltering. That last year colleagues from Pervouralsk no luck: there they took control of the public. The whole brain taken out.
The man who managed to make the brain road builders, named Dmitry Loginovskikh. He is a member of the NGO "Road Commissioners" ("PP" wrote about it in number 22 of June 10, 2010 - the "Heroes of asphalt"). Last year, together with my friends Dmitry all their spare time to spend on something to stand over local repairmen. Every action of their activists checked for compliance with state standards and the tender documentation.
- As a result, instead of the declared four and a half thousand square meters of roads builders repaired six thousand - proudly tells me Loginovskikh Commissioner. - And the money was enough, nothing is further from the allocated budget was not required. I do believe that if the company is to constantly monitor the road workers, the quality of work will improve significantly. However, we only have four people, and all the facilities we do not have. For example, one half of the street Weiner repaired Armenians, and our second. For Armenians, we are still bdili, but our attention is not enough. As a result, half of the street is now a quality, and the second - "on and back off».
Control of road builders Pervouralsk largely failed to establish because of the position of the local mayor. At first he did not pay attention to the commissioners, and then suddenly became imbued in every way to support them. As a result, the governor removed from office of the mayor, the new mayor to commissioners openly scored, and everything returned to normal.
... Work ends in the middle of the ninth evening. After today, throwing a piece of iron nostalgia yesterday jumping boots. Under the rules of the newly laid asphalt must be calm to stand for 7-8 hours. But the movement on this section of road is opened almost immediately. Road builders just too lazy to negotiate with the local traffic policemen question on temporary closing directions. I have no doubt that next year these same people will again repair the same way
The underground quarry
- Today at the quarry to work. Vitka will be considered salable - Stepanych traditionally instructs me before the last change. - That's all. If you want to further professional growth, we should not have to learn to work with asphalt, and papers.
Read salable simple. We need to know exactly how many trucks have downloaded and how many of them to get to a particular object. The idea is to have each car GPS-navigator, but Stepanych some reason believes that the old reliable.
Vitek, who left me here - is representative of the owners of the quarry. Bdim planet carrier and for each other. Officially, this career does not exist. Unofficially, its roof some security forces, whether from the Interior Ministry, or the prosecutor's office. As Stepanovich, "fuck knows, I do not understand shades." The most interesting thing that formally employed enterprises extracting stone for road construction in the Sverdlovsk region unit. But in reality, only in the vicinity of Yekaterinburg underground workings for more than two dozen. It is their products and road builders used in most cases.
Vitek from the lake, as well as the majority of workers in the quarry. Labor shifts. For a week of work in different teams, I was already convinced that the myth of the inertness of the Russian population and its reluctance to go after the work has nothing to do with reality. On tracks I have met people from Kurgan, Volgograd, Irkutsk, Vologda. Fulfills the construction season in the Urals, leave home, and the next year working somewhere in Sochi and Tatarstan. Why in the country there is still a system of registration, proudly renamed the residence registration, it is unclear.
In the evening Stepanych checks my calculations with some his notes. Like everything converges. Although, frankly, I did not understand what and how it came together. What is clear is that at the bottom of the road will lie once stolen a stone of unknown quality.
- What impressions from our work? - Interested in a curtain Stepanych.
- Understand that the good roads we have not been and will not be.
- Well, what do you want? Won last year, a piece of highway in Nizhny Tagil made - so it has collapsed. This summer will alter. Previously, it was better. Rollback was ten per cent, and I can safely say that the road is repaired, for example, will last three years. Now rollback twice. Consequently, the real guarantee on the road below in exactly the same proportion.
- Forget about the rollback. As I understand it, the main reason for poor roads - is the lack of control?
- About the rollback will not forget. Whoever takes it ensures that your work will be in any case. This alone kills as the issue of the spot. Although, frankly, bad roads - is something even good. A lot of people it employs. Someone is repairing the road, some cars broken on this track. Someone makes asphalt and gravel picking someone builds houses for those who took the rollback. In general, the broken road provides employment heap of people are not worse than any innovation. And the fact that this process is not stopped, millions are interested, not rubles, and people.
- About the process, I have heard from Sergey.
- Well, he is right.
- How is he, by the way, of the philosophers in the roadster hit?
- Just lucky man.
How to hide a billion
- Previously, all regional programs, including those related to the repair and construction of roads in our region have the status of law.