What color is Mars?

35 picture + text + video
Today I want to use a theme that is already utterly beaten, but still steadily emerges in almost any discussion of Runet, which featured the word "Mars" and "NASA". Let's talk about the color of Mars. I know many people have this issue sits in the liver like me, but I took it for this reason. We must once and for all to sort through all the arguments and dot.






To start analyze all the main arguments of the supporters of the theory of "NASAskryvaettsvetMarsa." The evidence they have not much, but if they do not explain, you may have doubts, even a person far from the conspiracy.
A favorite method of conspiracy - it nadergat facts, ignore the explanations and to present under its interpretation. Therefore, it is only necessary to show how manipulative these conspiracy theories. Yes, I think that the initiators of all these revelations of conspiracies are well aware of their absurdity, but Losers - a valuable resource you'll ever need, which can be converted into traffic and hundreds of links to your site or channel youtube.

Let's get started.
All this history and hysteria began when large quantities of steel to come photos of the twin Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. Someone thought it strange that the soil on Mars, burgundy and beige sky, and then they came across the official photograph of the platform Spirit.




"What is it?" - Gasped the then US Losers do not know how to read the description under the photo - "Why is NASA emblem maroon, not blue?».

And indeed, why not? Do not be so stupid as NASA palitsya: to hide the true color of Mars (leave aside the question what for it generally should), while leaving the color hints that any conspirologist could expose the conspiracy.

But just something I had to look the description of the photos and find out what these pictures are made with no red filter, and infrared. Color photos on the rover's twin created by the black-and-white camera through different color filters. There, on each chamber was seven filters with different wavelength slightly different on the right and the left, among whom was red and had infrared.




Details about how to obtain color images from the cameras rovers is written for a long time.

A bit of theory: a color picture obtained by shooting through three filters: red, green and blue (format RGB: red, green, blue), and then three shots in Photoshop to combine received one color.




In some cases, NASA does not use a red filter, and infrared. It was necessary to obtain extensive information about the properties of the soil and of the objects. After the camera rover - is primarily a scientific instrument and then for entertainment means taxpayers. So this panorama, with a landing platform Spirit lifted using an infrared filter. But it is a platform Opportunity removed using red and normal colors as seen by difference.




NASA emblem is not visible, but the blue electrical tape ™ immediately catches the eye. But if you look at the difference in the ground on the two photographs, it is not so significant. Through infrared it "Red", but on the original green grass and blue sky is still to be seen.

Feature obtain color images in three filter caused another charge by NASA in that they spread a lot of black-and-white photos and very little color. Firstly, the "little color" is nonsense, because Curiosity published before thousands of color pictures the Spirit and Opportunity, and dozens of huge 360-degree panoramas. Secondly, spreading raw black and white frames taken through color filters, NASA gives everyone an opportunity to produce color images of Mars. But conspiracy theorists master Photoshop only to function Autocolor, they "restore the true color of Mars," and the intricacies of working with color channels they do not know.



The next argument adherents of the doctrine "marsnekrasny" - is a BBC report on the work of specialists NASA. On a plot of transmission scientist sitting at office laptop, then to his office consists of journalists, and there is something asked.



But conspirologist shouts "Aha!" And points to the monitor behind the scientist, and there is not Mars red and blue sky. This is more than strange looks organization of conspirators on a global scale, where journalists with cameras easily roam from office to office, looking much like it. But I do not think about those who want to catch NASA's lies.

So what's on the screen? It shows a section of Cape Verde Victoria Crater, which investigated Opportunity.



NASA scientists used earth treatment under the lighting conditions in order to facilitate the identification of rocks stones that occur rovers. As the eyes of geologists familiar to terrestrial conditions, then the change of colors of the Martian images produced in the same direction. And these photos are not secret.
Here Cape Cape St. Mary located next door to the Cape Verde
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Or Santa Maria crater that Opportunity drove last year
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But this image is obtained using a 13 color filters.
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Can you imagine what would happen if the journalists caught scientist for editing this photo? «NASA admits that the rovers landed on a rainbow!»
Just published photos always given an explanation of the type: It is presented in false color to accentuate differences in surface materials. Or in the case of the rainbow photo: The image was taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity using all 13 color filters. But those who see everywhere traces of a conspiracy, do not know how to read.

In addition, the conspiracy theorists, apparently unaware of the existence and dust. Otherwise, do not be taken for further proof of the conspiracy that's NASA photo.

This memorial flag, placed in memory of the victims of 9/11 on the manipulator Opportunity. And attention is drawn to the fact that it sounds as if it is tinted red.



This memorial flag, placed in memory of the victims of 9/11 on the manipulator Opportunity. And attention is drawn to the fact that it sounds as if it is tinted red. Conspiracy theorists believe that this is proof of using a red filter, but it's just a red Martian dust. The frame is made in 2011, and if you look photographs taken in 2004 at the beginning of research operations for 31 salts (Martian day), there clean flag in our usual colors.



When there was a large self-portrait of Curiosity, there are also some tried to look for traces of the conspiracy.

"Something NASA emblem of some gray and blue because she" only they, too, forget about the dust.



Planting MSL made not by the inflated cocoon as the previous rovers, and using the Sky Crane, so that it was in the dust udelat from the first seconds on Mars.



Another kind of tell the story of how the first picture was produced with Mars lander Viking 1.



In the book, the authors of which prove that there is life on Mars, and NASA is hiding (Mars: The Living Planet, by B. Di Gregorio, G. Levin and P. Straat, Frog Ltd, Berkeley, 1997) is a story about the circumstances obtaining the first picture. According to their testimonies, they assembled at JPL journalists everywhere have placed color TVs, and get a snapshot of Mars led him directly to the screen. In the picture was allegedly blue sky and green spots on the rocks. After that, as stated in the description of the book, experts NASA ran from monitor to monitor, twisting their color setting to photograph Mars turned red. Check the accuracy of the story now it is impossible, but there are two significant moment: first, a color frame Viking obtained as well as on the rover's twin - by combining three black-and-white pictures, so there was no signal from Mars, which had It is immediately displayed on the monitor; secondly, on the monitors if the image was broadcast from a neighboring office, which made color mixing frame, do not be easier to replace it with the "red" and continue to broadcast than to attract attention, engaged in adjusting the monitors in front of everyone?

Through hysteria pumped conspiracy theorists, many people began to worry about the question: what color Mars and the Martian sky, really? Let's see.

The main culprit red color of Mars - iron oxides, or just rust. Martian crust was very rich in iron ore. For example, a plateau Meridiani, where Opportunity rolls simply strewn with hematite - iron pellets formed in shallow waters or groundwater.



Under the influence of water in the oxidizing atmosphere is converted into iron rust, which, as can be know by those who work with the metal thin easily becomes fine dust. A liquid water on the planet once was long and hard, so time was of Mars blush. According to observations by NASA all the dust on Mars is magnetic, ie, It contains traces of iron.

Martian dust storms spread even where iron in the soil is not so much. For example, in the crater Gale, in the place of landing Curiosity lander jets blew the dust, and identify gray surface.



But in a few days, everything was back to the familiar red picture.


But on the whole scenery there is lighter than on the plateau Miridiani.
Similarly, covered with dust, and the rover itself, so looking at its color markers and body, or trying to restore the "true color", it should be noted that it is red Martian dust.

Touch the subtleties of color calibrate the white balance, I do not want here. We once tried, but I was not happy with the results and was used to "wet» (raw) color Curiosity.
Even more



Let me just say that color cameras Curiosity, unlike their predecessors, have a standard Bayer color filter CCD sensor Kodak KAI-2020, so remove as conventional SLR cameras. The difference in color reproduction depends on the white balance settings. But in the world of color balance adjustment of the camera have been made by people who know how to look like a particular color when a particular color temperature. On Mars, the people is not there, so no one could say would be "Is the color right" and slight color variations are taking place. For the proponents of the theory that NASA takes everything through a red filter to hide the green Mars share a secret that raw images Curiosity is just a small bend in the yellow-green.



With that looks like Mars from space much easier. We have photos of "Viking»



"Hubble»



Mars Odyssey



If someone does not trust NASA can look pictures of the European satellite
Mars Express



Or even the Soviet "Mars 5»



The latest satellite MRO shoots in color extension, so it frames the "true" will not name, had light gray looks like ultramarine and dark gray as the deep blue. But to go to admire the photos on the official website would recommend.

But with the Martian atmosphere and interesting color palate. If we turn back to Mars snapshots "Hubble", that many of them you can see the blue Martian atmospheric envelope.



For this conspiracy is proof of Martian conspiracy, they say that's proof blue Martian sky. Supporters of this idea forget that "Hubble" and the rovers are controlled by the same Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) NASA. Therefore it looks strange that those quietly publish compromising themselves. But logic and conspiracy theories have never been friends, so let us continue.

The problem of the blue Martian atmosphere is that it is too thin. Mars atmosphere is from 1% to 0, 75% of the Earth's atmosphere - seasons affect the density. Pressure on the surface of Mars, such as at a height of 30-40 km above the earth. Accordingly, the sky there should be the same.

the recent launch of the prototype of the Spanish tourist stratosphere 32 km


Jump Felix Baumgartner, everyone could see there was a clear sky day.



But the black sky on Mars is not. So what's the deal? A clue in the same rusty Martian dust. It is very small, dry, and gravity is weaker there three times, because of this dust can climb quite high even when there is no dust storms. On Mars, even the clouds are of three types: water (ice), carbon dioxide (also ice) and dust.



Due to the color of the dust of the Martian sky is varying shades of pink to beige, and brown, and a storm. And in calm weather darkens to the zenith.
(Shooting Viking1 Lander, sol 1742 - dust storm)



At the same time on the sunset and sunrise there is a unique chance to see the blue sky Marsa.

The color of the sky on Earth depends on the Rayleigh scattering. The short-wave part of the spectrum from violet to blue is scattered in the air, turning our sky. When sunlight passes through a thicker layer of air - at sunset - scattering exposed and longer wavelengths up to red, which we owe to our red sunset. On Earth, sunlight on the horizon runs 38 times thicker layer of air than at its zenith, and it is possible to imagine a comparable scale and on Mars. But there is only this thickness allows you to see the blue of the sky, like we have a clear day, and it was only around the disk itself. A little more time to dissipate only purple wave.



Unfortunately, Curiosity did not take off until the sunrise and sunset, but there is an explanation. Unlike previous Mars rovers, who worked on the plain, "curious" in a deep crater. It is surrounded by mountains, behind which the sun disappears no time to fade to the point, how it can be removed without a solar filter without fear of damage to the camera's sensor is too intense light.



Maybe the danger of this world and would not be fatal, especially recently when a local dust storm passed, but NASA is reinsured, and can only be removed through "welding mask».
(black dot - it is Deimos)



That's when Curiosity climbs the mountain and can look beyond the crater, then there is hope to see the sunset or sunrise in the high quality, but this is still waiting at least a year.

In conclusion, I want to say that the color of Mars is nearly as fickle as the figure in the world. Mars has no oceans and green spaces, but the time of year, time of day, weather, geological structure of the surrounding rocks affect what colors will be in a particular location at any given time. Blaming NASA's conspiracy case meaningless if it did not we would now still drew the Martians in their junks sailing through the channels along the rice fields. Of course, there was a Soviet research program have Mars Express, but 90% of the information we know about Mars we know thanks to NASA. And to check the accuracy of the information they need to know high-school physics and be able to read.

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