Ancient Heraklion was hidden from the surface of the earth quake for several millennia. His discovery has surprised scientists. Although no Heraklion Atlantis (the Atlantis legend is much older), their stories are very similar ... Lost City was discovered in 1200 under water after let.
The main sea port at the mouth of the Nile, Heraklion was a small but thriving city. Its residents through contact with foreign merchants and sailors who frequented the town on the road to Egypt, were educated people with a broad outlook. The main temple of the city was dedicated to the god Amonu.
But in the blink of an eye disappeared Heraklion. In the first century BC there was a strong earthquake that flattened homes, sinking ships in the harbor, killed most of the inhabitants of the city, forcing the rest to flee, leaving everything of value imuschestvo.
For two millennia, the ruins of the city, hidden from prying eyes silt and ten meters of water, lay 3 kilometers from the coast in the Bay of Alexandria Abukir.
But last summer, the French archaeologist Franck Godo announced that he had discovered the remains of the city which, in his view, relate to Heraklion: a black granite slab, or stela, on which is written the word "Heraklion", the remains of ten ships in the former harbor, as well as thousands of others items, including jewelry, coins, vases and personal veschi.
The inscription on the stele basis certifies that the plate had to be erected in "Heracleon-Tronise (Herakleion-Thonis)». This is the first clear evidence that the observed semi-mythical city is still Geraklionom.
Although modern scholars about the city, little is known, it knew all the ancient world. The Greek historian Diodorus wrote that Hercules, son of Zeus, was blocked for the Nile, and thus saved the lives of people who were on the banks of the river. In gratitude, the people erected a temple in his name, and named in his honor the city. According to another Greek historian, Herodotus, the lovely Elena and her lover Paris fled to Heraklion, fleeing from the wrath of the husband of Helen, Menelaus, but they are forced to return Tonis, guard gate Nila.
Somewhat differently tells of these events the Greek historian VI. Stesichorus. He says that the Greeks have been misled by the gods on the location of Helen to in using the war to reduce the population of Troy. In fact, according to Stesichorus, during the Trojan War, Elena was in Geraklione.
Archaeologist Frank Godo found no evidence Helen stay here, but it seems a fantastic discovery. One of the first great temple was found Gerakliona.
Remains of thick stone walls indicate the limits of its territory. Near the ruined walls, archaeologists found three huge statues of pink granite, which presumably were defeated during the quake. Two statues depict the still unknown pharaoh and his wife. The third article - Hapi, the Egyptian god of the spill Nila.
Inside the temple is a monumental tomb of pink granite covered with hieroglyphics. Its upper part is still difficult to read, but a preliminary translation of texts placed on the bottom indicates that this is undoubtedly the temple Heraklion. A number of scientists, including Manfred Klauss from Frankfurt University, believes that the ultimate deciphering the inscriptions on the tomb would still bolshe.
Even more impressive is the two-meter black granite stele - almost a complete copy of the stele, found in 1899 in Nokratzhe. This is the first case of duplication of steles in Egyptology. Stela of Nokratzha, which is now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, bears the text of the decree of Pharaoh Noktanebusa First, the founder of the 30th dynasty, who ascended the throne in November 380 BC The decree introduced a 10 percent tax on the Greek artisans and products in Nokratzhe and Tonis, who was sent to the construction of the temple to the goddess Neyt.
The text ends with the words, "His Majesty said:" Let it be carved on the stele erected in Nokratzhe, canal Anu. " Stele found no nothing different from the first, except for the last sentence, which reads: "And he said to his Majesty:" Let it be carved on the stele, installed at the entrance to the Greek sea in Heraklion-Tonis ».
Godo group and found the place where the harbor of Heraklion, which now are fragments of at least 10 vehicles piled in a heap. This suggests that they were killed by the tidal wave that followed the zemletryaseniem.
Wherever researchers examined the underwater city, they found a variety of subjects. All of them date back to the period from the first century BC previously. Most of them - in good condition, despite being under water for 2 million let.
Among the findings - gold earrings, bracelets, pins, rings, combs, beautiful Greek cup, glazed, kuritelnitsa for aromatics, hundreds of coins. All of them only slightly scratched the surface. And this is just the beginning - the main excavation (if this concept can be applied to archaeological work under water) - to come.