The criminalization of society has caused extraordinary interest to the thieves' world. And the myth of mafia society and the state is replicated by the media, and the cultivation of a nihilistic attitude to the law and the promotion of thieves lifestyle contributes greatly put to flow "production" novels and stories idealizing the underworld. In these "noble" killer living "on concepts", "wet" not "noble" and represents almost people's avengers, and thieves - surrounded by an aura of mystery omnipotent masters.
Not the least role in the implementation of this myth into mass consciousness play and distributed "thieves" dictionaries. "Bot on hair dryer" is becoming fashionable and quite decent. Dictionary of criminal slang is rapidly increasing in volume gradually, and the volume and composition, approaching a normal dictionary of the Russian language. And he thieves jargon begins to gradually withdraw from the dictionary of slang, and in its place comes vernacular vernacular.
Reader opens Dictionary and sees familiar words. Thieves "language" to become the language of the reader, there is a kind of criminalization of linguistic identity. Language in the reader's mind turned inside out, reinterpreted, mutating into a "new language." And along with the language of the age-old human values mutate and replaced directly opposite.
Published currently dictionaries can hardly be attributed to the dictionary in the proper sense of the word (see. "About the dictionary"), it is rather a list of words in which, along with a really commonly used slang included.
& quot; ... In the zone master steep, often he is on day and night Shmona. Godfathers Abwehr just the Wolf. One senior lieutenant wanted Victor ssuchit for this zapadlo faloval it into morons in Plekhov, Shnyrev or extinguished. Vitek for the third best-selling still goes to the kid, but he's the golden boy and his authority to be the next shodnyak.
In zhivoderke shamovka was normal, Mandra and rassypuha always been in the garage. Zavarganili Georgian broom had and nonsense married and bong. Medics tsyrlah rack on front of the main and other Konovalov not to shuranuli on a stock exchange ... & quot; (From a letter kingpin).
Vladimir Dal criminal slang called "thug music", which in past centuries composed "capital petty thieves, crooks, thieves and pickpockets." Jargon (Fenya) originated from the language of Ofen (peddlers) and reminds the languages of certain ethnic groups, including African and Greek. Some researchers believe that in the seventh century, resided in Russia ofensky people disappeared almost without a trace and leave a memory only in Russian epics. Archaeologists do not deny this version, but direct evidence has yet been found.
Language Ofen generations passed, and soon it became upotreblint beggars, strolling musicians, thieves, prostitutes. Fenya not just talking, it codified oral and written information in an effort to hide the meaning from the prying eyes and ears. Jargon entered the gang of thieves, jails and prisons, has got to prison. They are the indigenous inhabitants, even to forget the native language, confusing words and phrases.
Each criminal group, each prison thieves supplemented it with new words and expressions. But despite the grandiose performance, the thieves' jargon does not become rich and complete language.
"Blatnaya music" acts more on emotions than intellect. Academician Dmitry Likhachev, see "Features of the primitive primitivism thieves speech" wrote: "Thieves we should expose to the thief" his "to prove its full membership of the thieves' world, along with other signs that a thief struggled to stand out in the environment, to emphasize his thieves dignity : style of wearing a cap, pulling it over his eyes, fashionable clothing in the thieves' environment, gait, gestures, finally, a tattoo from which do not give thieves, despite the obvious harm it brings to them, giving them the agents of Criminal Investigation. Do not understand any language or thieves to use it incorrectly - is shameful ... »
Not knowing exactly the use and meaning of expressions thieves can not win any recognition and was the authority.
But it should be noted that "blatari" hate "nablatykannyh" ie, those who imitate them, destroying the whole pathos and attractiveness of criminal speech. Thief fraera different from that bot on hair dryer seriously and fraer upotreblinet bawdy joke expression, ironically. Intentional vulgarization of speech issues "nablatykannogo».
Criminal slang began to study in Tsarist Russia (so B. Trachtenberg, amounting to "Zhargon prison", St. Petersburg, in 1908, he was a first-class con artist and the French government sold the mines in Morroco, which no one has ever seen) . A number of articles and monographs was published in the first years of Soviet power. Later explore Fenya was considered bad form, and it was printed only in the handbooks of the Ministry of Internal Affairs especially for official use. In 1982, at the Frankfurt publishing house "Seeding" published "Dictionary of Slang Gulag" edited by B. Ben-Jacob. Then there were the New York edition of the "Dictionary of thieves jargon in the USSR." A year later, in New York, B. Kozlovsky published "Collection of Russian thieves 'dictionaries' in four volumes. In the early 90's "underworld music" began to print in Russia.
However, the quality of these dictionaries, from a scientific point of view, low, and they have more cognitive value.
Jargon in the beginning of the century, there were almost four thousand words and phrases. Prison-camp policy of the USSR for the criminal language opened an entire era. For decades jargon amend and supplement. Vocabulary of modern criminal environment includes more than ten thousand words and expressions (note that they are not clear from what motives, including many common words, not related to the criminal slang). Many of them are used very rarely, but still apply. But this passive margin. To communicate blataryu 300-400 words is enough, although he understands much more.
"Blatnaya Music" has developed quickly and chaotically. Each raspberry sought to have their secret language. Sometimes the word was born, upotreblinlos several times in conversation or Malyava and forgotten. A huge storehouse of wisdom verbally thieves thieves fully claim the world is impossible. A similar fate is inherent in any language dictionaries that register much more than is required for active communication.
The criminal world was divided into narrow specializations: pickpockets, gamblers, drug dealers, thieves, counterfeiters and others. Every professional clan developed native Fenya. For example, a pickpocket today armed with five hundred terms and phrases, tricksters have about three hundred, burglar - two hundred, robbers and drug traffickers - 100 -150.
Once again I want to remind you that the alleged criminal slang dictionaries, of which the mass of the web, are the cognitive interest in its use as a teaching tool for romantics priblatnennyh almost impossible. Fenya akin to a foreign language: to master it, just read the dictionary, you can not.
Understanding the thieves' speech - the first step to knowledge of the criminal world. And it needs to be studied. Including in order to avoid becoming his next victim.