In 1950-e years the CIA had created the office of scientific intelligence. One of the main directions of his work was the testing of psychotropic and other substances (LSD to “truth serum”). Often experiments were conducted on unsuspecting people. Almost all documents on this program MKULTRA were destroyed by the CIA in the 1970s.
Frank Danino – French historian of exploration. Born in 1962 in Paris, doctor of historical Sciences. His most famous book “Daily life of the CIA. Political history 1947-2007”, released in 2007 (produced in Russia “Young guard” in 2009). It describes the methods and main directions of work of the CIA. We present an excerpt from the book, which tells about experiments of the CIA with substances affecting the human psyche.
Department of scientific intelligence of the CIA in the 1950s, the years have experienced a remarkable rise. He shares in the field, relevant major scientific disciplines: physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, astronomy. Previously shied away from cooperation with the CIA American scientists in a growing number ready to assist him. Attack of Moscow to Western scholars call "lackeys of capitalism" and the campaign of Trofim Lysenko, the author of the theory of biology classes, against geneticists, forced them to change opinion. Most of the scientists were convinced that the Russian science affected the Communist ideology. At the outbreak of the Korean war, many American scientists were ready to put their knowledge at the service of the country.
The work of the Department covers such a vast area, such as chemical and bacteriological weapons, electronics, nuclear physics, telecommunications, Aeronautics and even the study of UFOs. Its analysts have seized this issue in the summer of 1952, when the increase in the number of witnesses, such as managers of the national airport in Washington, who have announced that they registered on the radar very strange echoes. The event stirred America and was in the papers. According to the American air force, signals are the result of a sudden temperature inversion. However, the CIA decides to delve more deeply into the problem and organizes his own group to study.
The CIA scientists came to the conclusion that this is nothing more than the physical and meteorological phenomena, rude jokes or collective hallucinations. They also carefully studied the Soviet Newspapers in search of references to witnesses who observed the UFO. They found nothing! This was enough to arouse suspicion of the CIA. Management admits that the Soviet Union uses the UFO phenomenon as a tool of psychological warfare in the present or in the future to sow confusion and panic in the United States.
The science team prefers to keep silence about his works. They feared that the UFO phenomenon is not intensified, if the American public learns that those interested in the CIA. These fears are not unfounded. However, that too much privacy has had the opposite effect. As a consequence, this will serve as ufologists proof of their belief in conspiracy theories: they believe that the CIA and the government deliberately concealed the existence of UFOs, aliens, etc. moreover, more recently, 95% of Americans said they have heard stories about the existence of UFOs, and 57% of them believe it. To the extent that even presidents Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan claim to have seen them.
One of the darkest pages in the history of the CIA opens at the threshold of the 1950-ies, when the section of the espionage interested in the success of their opponents in the field of control of human consciousness. In 1949, the public recognition of the head of the Hungarian Catholic Church, cardinal, Mindzenti to confirm this. During the demonstration process, the dissident Pro-Soviet regime in Budapest, he pleaded guilty to crimes he couldn't commit. His behavior was especially strange: he spoke and moved like a robot. If he underwent a new type of psychological impact? Been used whether drugs are unknown to doctors and psychiatrists in management? The leaders of the CIA believed that the cardinal was subjected to stresses; in their opinion, this evidence of confessions obtained during a series of trials in the Soviet Union (Interpreter Blog wrote that the doctor's laboratory Muranovskogo the NKVD and later MGB was engaged in the synthesis of not only poisons, but also “truth serum”).
The disclosure of the secret of these new techniques is becoming an urgent priority for the CIA. Put a dual aim: to find protection against the "serum of truth" that Councils could use against the Americans; to force Communist prisoners to tell what they were subjected during interrogation.
In April 1950, Hillenkoetter claims is the first research programme of the CIA for control over the consciousness, which trusts the security Department management. The Korean war serves as an additional reason for the acceleration of its implementation: 15% of American prisoners of war captured by the Chinese, do cooperate with their captors. And 70% of prisoners signed confessions in which they agree that you have committed war crimes, and condemn the bad practices of American government. Even more disturbing is the fact that many of them upon returning to the United States refuse to renounce their testimony. So now openly talking about "brainwashing". This expression appeared in the autumn of 1950 and it belongs to an American journalist from the newspaper the Miami News, who actually worked for the CIA.
Then the research programme is transferred to the Scientific and technical Directorate of the CIA. Its tasks include "a comprehensive study of methods to modify human behavior", in cooperation with physicians, psychologists and other psychiatrists, without necessarily revealing their true customer. During the Korean war, the appropriations for these studies has doubled. Free from the control of scientific colleagues, driven by scientific curiosity, researchers, including Donald Cameron, President of the International Association of psychiatrists, was out of line, ignoring professional ethics, much to the distress of their "Guinea pigs".
Overall, more than one hundred programs will be launched in the US and in Canada and the UK. They bore the code name Bluebird (Blue bird) or Artichoke — a favorite vegetable of Dr. Sid Gottlieb, the master of these projects. The most famous among them — MKULTRA. This name reminds one that the British used during the Second world war to denote a decoding messages encoded by the German Enigma machine. This time it was a system of a different kind, designed to penetrate the human brain. Cameron, for example, develops the theory of mental behavior with the support of the funds of the CIA. According to this theory, it is possible to erase completely the memory of patients to completely reconstruct the human mind. At the time, was great faith in the ability of neuroscience and behaviourism (science of behaviour) in the formation activity of the human brain.
The existence of these programmes and in particular MKULTRA program will be exposed during the work of the Commission investigating the CIA in 1975. In the Commission's report mentions the death of Frank Olson, a biochemist working in the framework of the government's military program on bacteriological weapons. In 1953, Olson jumped out the window of the high houses after the workers MKULTRA spiked without his knowledge in his drink LSD (psychotropic drug). In order to study its action — such was their explanation. In the context of criticizing the CIA, the press immediately picked up on it. President Ford publicly apologized and offered financial compensation of 750 thousand dollars, which the Olson family took. But his son Eric expressed doubts about the official explanation. From this point on he would dedicate his life to learning the truth about his father's death, which was disguised as a random. His father knew too much about the dirty deeds of the government, and so it was decided to remove it. Many American journalists conducted their own investigation. They had good reason to believe that Olson was murdered. To date, not appeared, however, no formal evidence to support this hypothesis.
Meanwhile, under the pressure of public opinion in 1975 created a new Commission for the investigation of the MKULTRA program. As a result, some of the darkest aspects of it became known to the public, and that in twenty-five years after the start of the program. The investigation revealed the illegal imprisonment of Americans, often suffering from mental disorders or marginalized, such as drug addicts and prostitutes. They tested poisons, medicines and drugs, such as LSD or marijuana, as well as methods of clinical trials in conditions close to torture, which was often carried out not only without their consent, but in complete ignorance of what treatment they were subjected to.
A series of "scientific" experiments were launched on the initiative of the CIA in a number of hospitals. As, for example, in hospital at Georgetown University, as well as other locations owned by the CIA. In the implementation of the idea of penetration into the secrets of manipulating the human psyche tested a wide range of methods in American patients, and very likely, the prisoners of the Korean war. Among the methods used were, for example, such as sudden changes in temperature, atmospheric pressure, effects of long isolation, the impact of hypnosis, electric shocks, actions, repetitive radio signals or even the radiation.
It was and remains impossible to know all the details of these experiments, as Richard Helms as CIA Director in 1973, was ordered to destroy a large part of the documents on the program MKULTRA. According to the Commission investigation of Congress, "Helms explained the termination of these experiments conducted without the consent of the patients because of the risk to put the CIA in a difficult position, but also because of the moral problems associated with these experiments."
It took fifteen years before practical considerations, and, to a small extent, ethical prevailed over the public interest.
In the early 1950-ies the moral aspects of these studies do not taken into account by the heads of the CIA, during this period, the solution of urgent national problems is valued, no matter what ways they were achieved. I also believe that the seal of secrecy will protect the authors of these works from any punishment. They fit into a comprehensive plan of restructuring undertaken by the Smith to improve opportunities for research, analysis and processing of intelligence information. Subsumed under these tasks more solid basis, Smith is now able to engage in other problem, undermining the work of the CIA: secret operations.
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