The Saga of the so-called "impossible" EmDrive engine on electromagnetic waves continues. At this point a number of famous scientists and scientific organizations confirmed the efficiency of the EmDrive. The engine is a system consisting of a resonator (a metal truncated cone) and a magnetron. The engine is running, it is a fact. How? This system somehow creates traction under the influence of electromagnetic radiation. There are several hypotheses explaining the appearance of traction. Yet no hypothesis has not been proven. Own explanation of the principle of EmDrive this month suggested that the Finnish scientists.
In their opinion, the education thrust in this system is due to the particular type of wave interference, namely destructive interference. Under constructive interference refers to this type of combining of the reflected waves when a resonance occurs when the waves strengthen each other. In the case of destructive interference the peaks of one wave fall on the troughs of the other, thus the resonance is absent. If we are talking about water waves, the destructive interference when they are superimposed on each other, and the surface of the water looks calm.
To give another example, with electrons. Thus, the interference of the Raman transitions of the electron are different degrees of non-linearity is destructive.
And where are the photons?
According to physicists from Finland, in the cavity of the engine from a large number of all particles are allocated to pairs of photons that are in phase with each other. Such couples, according to scientists, carry momentum in the direction opposite to the movement of the engine. The interaction of these photons leads to the appearance of an electromagnetic wave with a zero polarization. But the momentum of this wave still moves.
"The principle of operation of EmDrive can be compared with the working principle of a jet engine of the aircraft when the gases moving in one direction, pushing the plane in the opposite direction," says Arto Annila (Arto Annila), representative team of scientists from Finland. "Microwave radiation is the fuel that goes to the resonator... and a thrust of EmDrive create a pair of photons. When two photons move together but have opposite phases, then the couple is no electromagnetic field, therefore, it will not bounce off metal walls, and leave".
According to researchers, the thrust of the engine occurs under the influence of waves whose length is not a multiple of the distance between the walls of the cavity. This is only possible if the resonator is asymmetric. If it was completely symmetrical, then craving would not arise. In the case of the EmDrive thrust will occur at any asymmetric configuration. It is likely that the efficiency of the engine depends on the power of the microwave source and the material of the EmDrive cavity, and also from its shape. And this dependence is nonlinear.
Finns emphasize that their idea is just a hypothesis, and hypotheses of their colleagues, trying to explain the principle of operation of EmDrive before. Physicists from Finland I hope that engineers will be able to create a test system to test their theory, pairs of photons. For this you also need a device called an interferometer. The interferometer — measuring instrument, which is based on the phenomenon of interference. The principle of the interferometer is as follows: a beam of electromagnetic radiation (light, radio waves, etc.) with the help of a device spatially divides into two or more coherent beams. Each of the beams passes through different optical path and directed onto the screen, creating an interference pattern, which can set the phase difference of the interfering beams at the point of the picture.
Note also that in April the work of the EmDrive tried to associate with the interaction of photons physicist Mike Makalah (Mike McCulloch) from the University of Plymouth. Makalah offers to explain the principle of operation of the engine, through the Unruh effect. This effect was named after the physicist bill Unruh, who discovered it in 1976. He showed that the understanding of the vacuum depends on the observer's motion through space-time. For example, if a stationary observer located in vacuum, in the case of acceleration, the observer will see a lot of particles which are in thermodynamic equilibrium. In other words, the vacuum can only speak on a particular object. With inertia, according to Mahaloha is the pressure of thermal radiation for an accelerating body. At low accelerations the waves of Unruh radiation is larger than the entire Universe that allows us to speak about quantization of inertia.
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The theory is somewhat unusual, but it is also the principle of operation of EmDrive explains another effect — of-flight anomaly. Span an anomaly is an unexpected energy increase during gravitational maneuvers of the spacecraft about the Earth. This anomaly was observed as a Doppler frequency at S-band and X-band long-range telemetry.
So, Makalah suggested that photons have inertial mass. Photons are reflected inside the body EmDrive, therefore, they have inertia. The wavelengths of the Unruh radiation in this case are very small, their size is comparable to the size of the engine housing. If the wide part of the cone may be placed in the Unruh waves fit in the narrow part of the resonator, the momentum of the photons that are reflected, must change. And conservation of momentum, the system creates thrust. According to the author of this theory, it is consistent with the thrust values that were obtained in the experiments.
To check the theory of the Finns, and the theory can be experimentally Englishman, after a series of tests EmDrive. And if it turns out that the thrust of "impossible" engine is created by the photons, this will allow technologists to create the EmDrive with a different form of resonator that will create a greater thrust at the engine. What might this mean for space?
A significant reduction of the time of flight of the spacecraft. For example, New Horizons with EmDrive could reach Pluto in just 18 months instead of 9 years. If EmDrive will scale, and the flight to the nearest stars instead of hundreds and thousands of years could take only a few decades. This, of course, too much, but is more realistic. published
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