What are gravitational waves?

February 11 it was reported that scientists were able to capture gravitational waves - the distortion of space-time predicted by Albert Einstein. Their existence is proved through observations using a high-precision equipment - Scientists have recorded the signal merger of two massive black holes billions of light years from Zemli.Astrofizik and popularizer of science Sergei Popov told reporters "Medusa" Constantine Benyumovu what gravitational waves and how they run on prostranstvu- time.

Website is a small publishing interesting interview.


What are gravitational waves h3> - Beginning with the general theory of relativity, we believe that gravity is related to the geometry of space-time; modern theory of gravitation - geometric. In these theories describe the geometry of the space metric: the plane is easy to draw - a carpet lined in the box. This flat space. We can it in every bend, but it is better to do it without hands, and, for example, massive bodies - any heavy body distorts the space around them. Then - if it is a heavy body is fidgeting, or, for example, two heavy bodies will revolve around a common center of the star, they will be periodically perturb the space, and in space run ripples This is the gravitational waves. .

Imagine that someone is floating on the water and on the surface of it are the waves. That's about the same, and gravitational waves running through the space-time. And when they pass some piece, where we live, they disturb space-time around us. Perturbs the very weak, because gravity compared to the other forces are very weak. Measure it is difficult, but possible. And people over the past 50 years trying to make it. And then, finally, it happened.

What wave could fix right now, due to the advent of suitable equipment h3> -? Yes, first of all this equipment. The detector LIGO, VIRGO detector, which will soon begin to work in Europe - it is absolutely stunning machine for accuracy. Before that, people used cheaper, simpler approaches. LIGO - it's 25 years of work, huge amounts of money spent, primarily on research to develop new technologies to bring these technologies to the mind and for the manufacture of these precision instruments

Black Holes associated with this story because it is a massive body, distorting space h3> -? In order to get a stronger signal, you need not just a massive body, and at the same time massive and compact. In fact, what is happening - it is a black hole falls on the other. At this point the heavy bodies interact with each other and moving at nearly the speed of light, so much energy is emitted once, in a very short time interval. Therefore LIGO and VIRGO specially created for fixing the signals from neutron stars and black holes. Neutron stars are more and more often they merge, but more massive black holes - they can be seen from a great distance

How many had to watch out for black holes merge to discover a pair of h3> -? In this case, LIGO just lucky. Almost as soon as they joined, they saw the signal - the merger of two very massive black holes. The signal is very much dependent on the weight. Normally, the average black hole every three and even four a little better, but in this case it was possible to see a signal from a very large distance.

As soon as the signal passes through the space-time, it weakens? If the event occurred in a billion light-years from the Earth, to us he should get in the subtle form h3> -? Of course, and therefore also important that we managed to find two very heavy black hole. Under normal circumstances, the detectors will see the signals from the merger of two neutron stars, which are five or ten times closer to us.


The last question: why is the signal recorded in the form of sound h3> - There are two points?. First, people like pictures and sounds. Therefore, many signals - vibrations of the stars, even some - converted into audible form. But here fated signal actually comes at a frequency corresponding approximately to our speech frequency. Physically, this phenomenon is different, but the same frequency - kilohertz. Therefore, scientists have decided that it is a beautiful course. Painted schedule adopted in the course of the experiment, says about the form of gravitational-wave signal that the wave vibrates the mirror in the measuring instrument. But usually people do not just want to see flourish and get some kind of multimedia content.

via meduza.io/feature/2016/02/11/signal-prishel-na-chastote-chelovecheskoy-rechi


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