Previously, doctors tried using lobotomy patients heal the battered mental health. Today, this method seems ridiculous, and often the word "lobotomy" is used in jest. It has long been clear that the technique does not work, but it is unclear how such a way all tried something lechit.1. Creator lobotomy received the Nobel premiyuMetod developed a Portuguese doctor Egas Moniz, who first conducted an operation called prefrontal lobotomy. He introduced into the brain loop and rotational movements of the brain inflicted minor damage. So Monis treating schizophrenia - he realized that the patients after the surgery much easier to manage.
Later, another doctor named Walter Freeman "improved" method - began to operate through the upper wall of the orbit. It turned out clearly faster. This procedure we know today under the name transorbital lobotomy. In 1949, the year of his discovery Moniz received the Nobel Prize, and really untested procedure had the confidence. Now it can be carried out legally. Soon lobotomy did thousands of patients around the world. Solely for medicinal purposes, of course.
2. Many people believed lobotomy lobotomy for alternativoyVystupivshie best doctors do not know about all the risks of brain surgery. They did not see what they are doing, but the reason for the operation was justified: psychiatric hospitals were for patients horrible place, and the procedure could help them to lead a kind of normal life.
The problem is that if drugs that could permanently violent reassure the patient was not. Heavy insane could cause major harm to themselves or others, so that at times required drastic measures. In patients often had to wear a straitjacket and placed in a separate room with soft walls. In such circumstances, violence was commonplace.
Lobotomy seemed way out of a terrible situation for both patients and physicians. It is a pity that it became in the end does not come out, but a dead end.
3. Watching patsientamiMonish treated patients and followed their behavior just a few days after the break links in their heads. Many believe that the criteria for determining whether a patient has become really normal, were biased: very much like a doctor, so that the result was positive. Let us explain: Moniz found improvement in most patients, because I wanted to find out just that. Freeman also, though practiced, perhaps more barbaric method, but worked with patients and after surgery. It is not cast them until his death.
4. Surgically induced detstvoFrimen coined a special term for people who have recently passed a lobotomy: surgically induced childhood. He believed that the lack of patients of normal intelligence, distraction, stupor, and other typical effects of lobotomy occur because the patient regresses - returns to a younger mental age. But while Freeman had no idea that the individual can be hurt. Rather, he believed that the patient eventually "grow up" again: re-maturing take place quickly and eventually lead to a full recovery. He offered to treat patients (even adults) as well as treated to naughty children.
5. Informed consent Nowadays, doctors have to first inform the patient about what is done, what are the risks and possible complications, and only then begin to complex physical or mental treatment. But in times of lobotomy patients such rights was not, and informed consent to treat casually. In fact, the surgeons did what they wanted.
Freeman believed that the mentally ill patient consent lobotomy can not give, because they do not able to understand all of its benefits. But the doctor just gave up. If he could not get the consent from the patient, he went to stay with relatives in the hope that they will consent. Worse yet, if the patient has already agreed, but changed his mind at the last minute, the doctor still did the operation, even if he had to "turn off" the patient.
6. Lobotomy destroy human zhizniChasche all lobotomy or render a vegetable, or makes it more obedient, passive and easily manipulated, and often more or less intelligent. However, if a lobotomy patient killed, all irreparable brain damage, doctors believed the side effects of treatment.
In one case, a pregnant woman had a lobotomy because alone, headaches, and the former she never became: the end of life ostavalst at the level of a small child who is unable to eat on their own or take care of themselves.
Another example: a boy named Howard Dulloo lobotomized at the request of his stepmother - she did not like that Howard was a difficult child. Freeman seriously recommend this method as a way to change a person. And the boy had a life forever losing itself.
7. Surgical teatrEst opinion that Freeman was very pleased to be able to do legally transorbital lobotomy all patients indiscriminately. He did not complete the procedure for ten minutes - did not seem to complicated brain surgery, even if it was the most useful operation in the world ...
Once he spent 25 lobotomies per day. It was he who first thought of "humane" to apply electric shocks to make the operation as long as the patients were unconscious. Worse, sometimes Freeman performed a lobotomy on both hemispheres of the brain just to show off. It is impossible to say exactly how many people he had broken life.
8. Chemical lobotomiyaSegodnya lobotomy considered absurd barbaric procedure. I would like to believe that a lobotomy was gone forever, because the doctors finally figured out what they are doing. But in reality, it simply replaced the more effective treatment.
Of all the doctors I adored lobotomy, perhaps, only Freeman, while others have resorted to it when it was believed that nothing else remains. But time passed, and replace operations came psychotropic drugs. There was a drug called chlorpromazine, which is called a "chemical lobotomy».
The drug apparently did not make patients foolish children who can not even control the basic functions of the body. And soon by both the lobotomy medical practice abandoned for good.