Sinister nedosypBezuslovno, all people are aware of how important it is to get enough sleep. Numerous studies suggest that adult needs to sleep at least eight hours a day. What for? The reasons are many. During sleep, the brain strengthens new neural connections, and thus acquires new information; In addition, during sleep the brain produces hormones that directly affect learning ability and quality of memory. And this applies not only to adults but also children. In particular, children.
Why children and adolescents so important vysypatsya
human brain develops to 21 years. In adolescents and children during sleep ordered formed during wakefulness new neural connections. If you keep enough sleep, the daily loss of the clock "accumulate", which can lead to irreversible changes in the structure of the brain. In adulthood restore it will be impossible.
Numerous studies show that regular nevysypayuschiesya children learn a lot worse. In the phase of REM sleep, which in children is 40% longer than that of adults, the hippocampus is active - so the brain assimilates information received per day. The more information received during the day, the longer you need to sleep. Lack of sleep brain neurons become less plastic that prevents the establishment of synaptic connections, and this in turn leads to deterioration of memory.
If we talk about education, the sleepy child can not remember something, what he had been told five minutes ago. And the more often it is enough sleep, the stronger the effect. In addition, at night the brain organizes information and lack of sleep worsens child's ability to memorize new - words, dates and stuff.
For adolescents, their sleep cycle is fundamentally different from the cycle of small children and adults. Absorb sooner they can not, because at a certain age the brain reconstructs the biological clock to a later time, "sleepiness hormone" melatonin in teenagers starts to be developed through the entire half hour after dark. This is associated with a particular stage of development in this period passes with age, but the hours of sleep, so necessary for a growing organism, unfortunately lost because of school schedules.
It was found that the lack of sleep deteriorates the brain's ability to absorb glucose from the blood, which is fraught with the loss of attention during lessons. Glucose is necessary for normal functioning of the prefrontal cortex - the area responsible for the construction of thought and ability to predict.
A child or teen can not even understand what threatens to lack of sleep. Tired man impulsive. For teens, this is especially true - constantly nevysypayuschiysya man unable to control his desires, he wants to be entertained, not to learn, and to influence the situation, he can not. This is just due to the malfunction of the prefrontal cortex.
During sleep, negative memories are processed in the amygdala, a neutral or positive - in the hippocampus. On the lack of sleep affects the hippocampus work harder, so sleepy person is physically unable to remember the good and bad memories do come to mind. As a result, adolescents suffer from mood swings and depression, and little children - on hyperactivity and attention deficit disorder. There is reason to believe that there is a direct link between "difficult character" of adolescents and lack of sleep. Unfortunately, the consequences could be even more serious, in particular, the lack of sleep during adolescence increases the risk of mental illness at the age of maturity. And the fact that people feel sleepy as the "hangover" does not know firsthand a lot.
With a lack of sleep, there are various hormonal disorders. For example, produce too much cortisol - a stress hormone, which leads to a weakening of the immune system and increase blood pressure.
Even during sleep deprivation produces excessive amounts of ghrelin - the hormone of "hunger". As a result, the child eat more and more rules that leads to excessive weight. A growth hormone, which also affects the breakdown of fat, not enough is produced. In the future, obesity leads to a general deterioration of health and health problems.
Lack of sleep also adversely affects the level of insulin in the blood, which increases the risk of diabetes. The list goes on and on.
What to do with nedosypom
The answer is simple - to get enough sleep. Today's children are loaded much more than their parents did at the same age. As a rule, they are to learn and play sports, attend various electives and creative circles. Still, for the childhood and youth need to learn everything you need to then go to a prestigious university and become a successful person. Yes, to deny the importance of this unreasonable. But you can not work to the detriment of sleep - at least, it is counterproductive.
It is much more logical to convince a child to go to bed at least an hour early so he could get some sleep before the start of lessons - so the brain would be much more effective to absorb new information. In the case of children would benefit from naps.
With teenagers situation is fundamentally different - 60% of high school students say that the lessons they really want to sleep. As already mentioned, their sleep cycle - not the same as in adults and children. Even if a teen goes to bed early, he did not fall asleep. In some US cities have gone a different way - starting date postponed for an hour later so students do not have to get up too early. Adolescents appeared another hour of sleep, And go to bed before they did not have. The result - improved performance by almost half. According to the research, for teenagers up later - is the only way to get enough sleep.
It is a pity that the Russian school is unlikely in the near future will be spent on that. Abroad, where the problem of obesity and poor academic performance is particularly acute, we conducted numerous studies that have shown lack of sleep and the relationship deteriorating mental and physical health of children and adolescents. Parents should think about the possible consequences of lack of sleep and take action: to sleep allotted amount of time, and gradually the body back to normal.
It is not only the quantity but also the quality of sleep. It is desirable that during sleep the human nothing distracted, sleep should not be interrupted. During the night take several cycles of sleep, from slow phase to the REM sleep: all of them are equally important.
All week, work hard, and then "backfilled" over the weekend, as is common in the modern world - not an option. But, unfortunately, many of today's children as well as adults who have problems with sleep. The day we get tired so that we can not sleep, or body and mind already "accustomed" enough sleep, in spite of the general deterioration of health.
But the body can be trained to sleep on time. There are some small tricks, after which it will be easier to fall asleep and dream will be long and tough. Particularly useful are these recommendations will be for adults and children, and teenagers should not ignore them - will still fall asleep more easily, and improve sleep quality.
Health. Before going to bed must wash and brush their teeth. You can take a warm shower. It will help to relax and tune in the desired fashion. Let it become a ritual. Go to bed at the same time and convince the child, too, to follow this rule. Note that this should be done, not when you have a child or valites with fatigue, and when it gets dark, that is, around 11 pm or even earlier. Teenagers better to go later to fall asleep almost immediately. If there is an opportunity to get up later. Our body - perfectly tuned machine. It works most effectively at a routine sequence of sleep-wake cycle, regulated protein PER. By the evening of protein decreases the activity of the body slows down. This is due to the day-night cycle. By morning, the level of PER again start to grow. Modern children's body produces a protein often chaotic, but if you go to bed at the same time, the work of the body gradually normalized. Get up in the morning with no extra effort will soon become easier. No caffeinated beverages box lunch. Caffeine is excreted from the body of 5-10 hours, which is a serious obstacle to relax. In other words, seven in the evening drunk a cup of coffee at midnight is still with you. The same applies to the harm of nicotine - smoking has never been a healthy habit, especially for adolescents, and the number of harmful effects, and includes violation of the sleep cycle. It is not necessary to sleep looking at the screen. It does not matter whether the person or watching a movie. We no longer want to sleep when it is dark, and the glare from the screen gives the body a team cheer. If your child or you need a nap right after work at the computer, at least, reduce the brightness of the monitor. The bedroom should be dark and cozy. About the light and the dark, we have already spoken. As for the comfort, it is much easier to sleep in a clean, warm and at the same time a well-ventilated room, not in a stuffy dusty environment. Minimize distractions. Sleep nothing should interfere. Then, during the night time to go through several cycles of sleep with all the phases and people wake up rested. This applies equally to people of all ages. It prevents noise? Earplugs. Light? Thick curtains on the windows. And another tip. If a child or adolescent is not possible to go to bed early, then let him try to carve out at least half an hour naps. This will give the brain the opportunity to "reset", and to cope with everyday tasks become much easier. You may have heard that large companies have special rooms with sofas, where an employee can lie down for an hour. You think this is just? No, the leaders know how to count money and understand that slept staff made more than tired.
The normal amount of sleep, day or night, increase productivity, reduce stress, improve mood. If you do not have time to sleep, it is necessary to find. Except for you, your health and the health of your child care no one, so start small - get enough sleep.