People's Artist of the USSR (1974)
Honored Artist of the RSFSR (1965)
Laureate of the State Prize of the Ukrainian SSR (1977)
Winner of the All-Union Film Festival in the category "First prize for acting work for 1974
Winner of the All-Union Film Festival in the category "First prize for feature films 1974
Leonid Bykov was born on December 12, 1928 in the village of Znamenskoye Slavic Donetsk region.
His father and mother were also hails from the village of Znamenskoye (Cherkasy parish Izyumske county Kharkov province). According to Soviet documents Feodor Ivanov son was born December 24, 1898, a daughter Zinaida Pankrat'eva - July 16, 1907. By nationality they were Ukrainians.
Father Bykov graduated from the village school, and after more than three decades Fedor in his autobiography wrote: "self-employment began life in 1913. Worked at Druzhkovsky plants from 1913 to 1917 ". Youth was not - had become an adult very early. Nearly four years he evidently stayed in the hell: two of them - as a boy in the shop Toretskoy chipping plant, and then up to the February Revolution - working in the press in the rail and finishing factory shop Donetsk Society there in Druzhkovka. Next - vortices hostile. Will be served in the old army, to return home and re-coat - this time the Red Army. Happen to really fight. After - working melopomolnogo plant at the station Shidlovskaya. The fate lead him to Kramatorsky steel plant in November 1923. Here Fedor Bykov will roll mill rolling-mill. That's when the handy hardening, resulting in factories Druzhkivka. By the spring of 1931 it will be felt in the "rolling" already as a first-class masters of their craft. This was followed by his marriage and the birth of her daughter and son Leonid.
Leonid Bykov grew clever and cheerful boy, but did not plan to become an actor. Having seen enough movies about pilots "Valery Chkalov" and "Fighters", he dreamed of the sky and dreamed of going to flight school. However, he had a small stature and face eternal teenager. So when in 1943 in Barnaul, where their family was evacuated immediately after the war, he came to the draft board and said that he had turned eighteen, asking at the same time send it to the front, he was immediately exposed. "Sooner you another front, greenhorn - said stern commissar. - You first finish school ».
But his dream of flying career Bulls did not leave. In 1945, in Leningrad, he enrolled in the 2 nd special school for pilots (Aerotour), where he studied for only a month. Because of its small stature was expelled from school, and this year career Leonid Bykov ended. Then Leonid had an idea to go to the artists. But in this field he was disappointed at first. During the first attempt in 1946 entered the Kiev school of actors he failed the entrance exams. Round loser awaited homecoming bleak and ridicule buddies and friends, but to avoid all this, the Bulls went to Kharkov, intending there to try again to become an artist and enrolled in the local theater institute. And bulls lucky. Whether he was nowhere to retreat and he was persistent, whether the examiners were perspicacious Kharkov Kiev, but the Bulls passed the exams successfully, and was assigned to the 1st year of the institute.
After graduating in 1951, the Bulls hit the theater troupe of Kharkiv Taras Shevchenko, and in 1952 played his first role in a movie. It was a film directed by Isaac Shmaruka and Victor Ivchenko, "The Fate of Marina." Leonid got cameo simple village guy Sashko. In other roles in the film starring the then Soviet cinema stars Nikolai Gritsenko, Boris Andreev and Mikhail Kuznetsov. At the box office in 1954 produced a picture of a sudden furor, taking 2nd place. This circumstance also played a positive role in the future of Bykov - he was noticed and remembered not only the audience, but also filmmakers. As a result, in 1954, director Alexander Ivanovo and Hope Kosheverova Bykov was invited to the role of Petit Mokina in his painting "Tiger Tamer". The film was a huge success with the public, and from that moment the name of the actor Leonid Bykov became widely known.
Almost simultaneously with the filming of "tamer" on "Lenfilm" Bykov was filmed in another painting, where he has already got the main role. It was a picture of Anatoly Granik "Maksim Perepelitsa". The success of this film at the box office was significantly lower than that of the previous two, but for the bulls is this picture truly opened the door to a great film and earned him a great love of the audience. After this role except to Bykov Maxim nobody addressed, and this is a striking confirmation of a huge audience of love and respect.
Bykov actively removed, but most of it was the role similar to each other. The actor did not want to endlessly exploit the same mask (in the theater he also battered comedic roles). Therefore, accepting the new proposals, he tried to choose the role of the different plans. So he was in the movie "Alien kin" in 1956, "My dear man," and "Volunteers" in 1958, "Broil Lukasz" and "May the stars" in 1959.
Unexpected for Bykov was in 1958 a proposal from Alexei Batalov, who proceeded to film adaptation of "The Overcoat" by Gogol and offered Bykov major role. To say that the actor was genuinely surprised by this choice, then say nothing. He was just shocked and delighted in such trust. Nothing like it was still none of Cinematographers is not offered. Therefore, the Bulls appealed to the leadership of the Kharkov theater with a request to let him go to Moscow to shoot in this picture. However, the leaders immediately cooled the ardor of a young star. "You are far too often disappears on the set," - they said Bykov. - It's time to pay attention to the theater & quot ;. In Moscow, the actor then and was not allowed. A major role in "The Overcoat" in Batalov played by Rolan Bykov.
In 1959, Bykov received another unexpected proposal - the director of "Mosfilm" Semyon Tumanov and Georgy Shchukin conceived to shoot the film "Aleshkina love" and the main role was invited Bykov. Bulls first doubted whether to take on this role. After all, he was already over thirty, and the hero of the film barely twenty, he was in love with a beautiful girl, and that, in the end, was to fall in love with him. "Which of my Romeo?" - Asked myself Bulls. However, the filmmakers to these his doubts and said: "This is the Romeo as you need us." Bykov consent was obtained, and the crew went on location to the virgin lands.
The film "Aleshkina Love" was released the country in 1961. Bulls played in it one of his best roles in film and on the right took a leading place among the then Soviet stars.
When the movie "Aleshkina Love" was released the country, Bykov in Kharkov was gone. Finally breaking with the theater, he went with his wife and two children in Leningrad, the city, which led him to a large cinema. The decision to move to this city was stimulated by the fact that Bykov promised to "Lenfilm" to try his hand at filmmaking. As a result, in 1961, together with the director Herbert Rappoport he shot the short film "How rope or winds ...". And although the picture has remained virtually unnoticed both critics and audiences, Bykov maloudachnyh this attempt did not deter from directing. In 1963, he had already removed his own comedy "Bunny," in which he played the title role. Although the picture is taken at the box office is not the last place, criticism of his amicably scolded. Apparently, the Bulls and he knew that took not very well made movie, if in a conversation with the director Alexei Simonov said: "For me the whole average Soviet cinema holds." Since such expectations did not justify the Bulls, the management of "Lenfilm" to directing it no longer allowed. He himself into it until it was torn. Even from the numerous proposals of other directors to act in their paintings refused, so from 1961 to 1964 on account Bykov was only a few roles in films. He starred in the films "On Seven Winds" in 1962, "When the bridges" in 1963, "Careful, Grandma!" In 1964.
In 1965, Bykov was awarded the title of Honored Artist of the RSFSR. A year later, he and his family (they have another child was born) left Leningrad and moved to Kiev. Reasons for leaving can be found in the letters Bykov one of his close friends in Kharkiv theater - Nicholas Borichenko. In one of them he wrote: "For almost a year, do not remove. I do not want. Refused 9 scenarios. I do not want to participate in false and anti-art things. Of course, will not last long, it is necessary to carry out the plan studio. Increasingly, I think we should go home. However, in the theater, obviously the same. What is the essence? How to make to live at? Maybe it's our damn job? .. »
A change of scenery was necessary to him as the air, and he really hoped that native walls will help him get a second creative breath. Unfortunately, he was wrong. In the period from 1966 to 1971, the year the Bulls did not starred in any movie not only at the studio Dovzhenko, but also on others. In a letter to all the same friend he wrote: "I think I lost myself. Other definitions can not find. I just have three months. Declined from five works. It is very bad. Go for wages. Ashamed ... »
But the line from another letter Bykov: "not sleep all night. Tell the whole truth would like ruined theater. Why Kiev studio gone directors Alov Naumov, Hutsiev, Don, Chukhray? We finally began to judge people for negligence in the art. And when we finally begin to be tried for criminal attitude towards people? The worst thing - public indifference. Servility. The cult could grow only on the basis of servility ».
Old dream Bykov was staged picture of the heroism of Soviet pilots during the war. Love for the people of this profession lived in it constantly. Therefore, when at the end of the 1960s dawned possibility of setting a film about military pilots, the Bulls immediately jumped at it. In collaboration with writers Eugene Onopriyenko and Alexander Satskaya script was written by future film "go to fight some old men." However, to put a picture of long given, considering it is not too heroic. To prove the converse, the Bulls began to "run in" scenario on the stage. Reading Bykov separate pieces of the script in various cities of the Soviet Union resulted from the audience so excited, that is no doubt of the correctness of created works of the authors did not arise. Got it in the end and heads of Ukrainian cinema. In 1972, the Bulls finally began shooting the film.
Bulls talks about working on the film about the birth of his plan: "Why are the characters we chose the pilots? Hard to say. Maybe because I myself was in aviation school, dreamed of flying and still admire the representatives of this heroic profession. Talking to pilots, members of the fighting, we realized one very important thing for us. In the harsh crucible of war, in the cutthroat its flame older experienced comrades sought, where possible, to save the young and inexperienced sokolyat.V this was the highest wisdom - care about the future, the eternal right and the duty to protect the strong, raise and educate - their successors. Thus was born the theme of "go to fight some" old. " And the other - not less dear to us. A well-known proverb says: "When the cannons speak, the Muses are silent." We wanted to prove that during the test win those who still people in the most brutal conditions, who takes with him into battle all light, humanity, which leads the battle with the enemy. And what could be more beautiful than music? No wonder the characters' second singing Squadron "like to say:" Wars are transient, music is eternal! ". Anger, misanthropy of fascism, our heroes countered high humanism, creative creative source, inherent in man. We - wanted to make this film in memory of those who never returned from the war, and in gratitude to live, to survive this brutal battle. Therefore, with great trepidation and excitement, we show a picture of the war veterans. And the best reward for us, when they say, "Yes, it was so».
Work on the painting was not easy, and to this day about her filming goes a lot of rumors. Significant fact is that the then Air Marshal, the legendary military pilot Alexander Pokryshkin personally ordered the crew to allocate five aircraft have exhausted their resources, and the museum at Monino site for Kiev brought a real frontline "corncob". However, when the crew moved to Chernigov, planes did not come back. They waited a few days, but to no avail.
There was talk that the picture is closed. Bulls assembled general council, where it was decided to change the director of the film. The new director arrived, and then, finally, put in motion. But the problems did not end there. When it was removed for a good half of the picture, the Bulls got a telegram-order on immediate dispatch of Kiev Anatoly Mateshko young actor, played the role of pilot nicknamed Darkie. Exit Bykov was not. Only a few days of drama school freshmen brought an assistant director, he took on the role of Darkie Sergei Podgorny. Actor found, but now it's much retake. And broke airplanes, stuffed bumps. In the sky at the controls of the aircraft climbed and the director, and the landing is not always passed successfully.
In general, if not for the enthusiasm of all the participants and volunteers painting is unknown, as it was the fate of the painting. And if not, that portion of the responsibility which shouldered the Bulls. Letting paintings was held December 27, 1973. When the lights came on in the room, they saw how Pokryshkin wipes tears. And then "go to fight some" old "waiting for a fantastic success. For five months rolled it looked 54 million viewers.
Sergei Podgorny said: "I played Darkie, while still a student Theatre Institute. At first, I was assigned to another role, and Darkie approved Toll Mateshko. And suddenly, the Bulls came up and said (he said slowly), "read the script, change clothes, throws off the shoulder straps one star, plaster and 15 minutes - to the site. Darkie play. " My knees buckled and I lay down ... in the wheat (the film was shot near Chernigov). There in an hour and found me Talashko ... This atmosphere I did not feel any more on one set & quot ;.
Vladimir Talashko, who played the role in the film Sergey Skvortsov, said: "After this film, all the boys raved sky. And two years ago when it was shown in Artek, in the hall sat a seven-year children and motionless, staring at the screen. That is the secret ».
Sergei Ivanov, who played the role of grasshoppers, said: "Bulls opened the way for me in the movie and gave faith in the dream. The genius of good ... In Russian quarter of Los Angeles in a shop window, I saw videotapes only one Russian film - "Bunny & quot ;. "Just the other are not in demand," - explained a saleswoman. So the Bulls won and America & quot ;.
Dmitry Mirgorodskiy said: "During the filming of" old men "somehow I strongly led Leonid Fedorovich. I just had guests - Georgian company. We walked "all the way". And in the morning on the set ... I spoke with Georgian accent. The First Cut. Second. The emphasis is not going away. "Mitya - worried Bulls - well, you're Russian soldiers, we already have a picture of Georgians." Scene filmed in one take, but only on the second day. And when Bykov reprimanded for what he allows the actors to take on three takes, the director replied calmly: "Sorry, you are not the right place. These were technical problems with the film, and I already solved them. " With it you can go to the exploration ».
A small feast gathered mainly employees studios. Modestly stood by Bykov daughter Marian, who came from Kharkov. It is very similar to his father. But to be photographed for the press flatly refused. With great pain talked about Hell Rogovtseva Bykov: "Once he told me sadly:" Here, abroad are not allowed. They say the heart is weak, it is dangerous. " Clearly, this was an excuse. And he believed in. His kindness abused, cheated. Often stood in front of him tasks that could not be resolved. As if the Lord tested him ... »
Eugene Simon says: "Picture" go to fight some "old" was presented at the International Film Festival in Colombia, in the city of Cartagena. And, in general, I must say, this choice was not the best ... in the sense of the pictures on this festival because Colombian people are very far away from us, from those problems, which is dedicated to our film. We were afraid that when they see a black and white version, narrow screen, some boys and girls in overalls, war, unknown to them - it's all going for them is unclear. The picture looked very uncollected. The room was so much noise, which leads us to the horror. Only later we learned that in principle it is happening in all the pictures. There Fellini and behaved in the same way at all just left the zala.Nam seemed that the picture simply fails, and we sat huddled in the hall. Leonid F. covered his face with his hand. I said Bykov:
- Let's leave until it's too late! And the Bulls replied:
- Genia, whatever it was, failure or success must meet face to face.
The film was over, we went to the scene. Everyone sat in their seats and looked at us. We stood together as ... the barricades. And he began to speak. I do not even remember exactly what he said, but there was something about the film, the audience wanting to explain a little bit far away from their problems.
He spoke so passionately, with Latin American temperament and a Russian pain that he began to listen, listen, listen. And when he finished, there was no the gulf between them and us, they smiled and clapped, and in their eyes was sympathy and desire to understand. Bulls defeated ... & quot;
The painting was extremely popular with the public. At the All-Union Festival in Baku film received honorary prize. He could take the main prize of the festival, if not a detective story that erupted on the sidelines of the festival.
The fact that at the same festival the film was shown Basil Shukshina "Kalina Krasnaya". The picture is excellent, however, caused a wave of rejection on the part of officials from the movie. Therefore, they had made a desperate attempt to "push" the movie and take away his opportunity to get the main prize. To do this, the Ukrainian delegation was invited: "Your picture" go to fight some old "may be the first place of" Kalina Krasnaya ". However, members of the delegation refused to discuss the matter without Bykov. "Then persuade him!" - Advised them to officials. And at two o'clock in the hotel room where he lived the Bulls, his colleagues came to the cinema. "We can get the first prize instead of" Kalina Krasnaya "- they said the director. To which he replied: "The list, which will Vasily Shukshin in the first place, I would be honored to be at least one hundredth. After my picture - is an ordinary film about the war, and it - it's a real breakthrough in the restricted area, a breakthrough in the field, as before, and thinking is not allowed. And pass on my words of the head of the festival ».
As a result, "Kalina Krasnaya" took the top prize still Baku Film Festival.
After the triumphant success of the movie "go to fight some old" ignore talented director was impossible. In the same year he was awarded the title of People's Artist of Ukraine. And, unlike many artists of the time, earn that title for a variety of reasons, not the talent and popularity among the people, the Bulls got his well-deserved.
In 1975, the Bulls began to take a new picture, and it has again become the subject of war. The film was called "Ata-Two, were soldiers" (script written Boris Vasilyev and Cyril Rappoport). Starring in it starred Vladimir Konkin himself Leonid Bykov (it was his 22th role). Initially removed in this picture did not expect the Bulls. On the role of Corporal Svyatkina auditioned many actors, but none of them came. Then colleagues Bykov said: "Lenya, it's your role. Can not you see? "And they were right. Better Bykov this role would hardly anyone played.
In the order of the paintings were marked by tanks, artillery and several army platoons. But preparations for the shooting was delayed until late autumn. Only at the end of November, a group went to Zagorsk. There over the last month filmed a significant part of the picture. However, when the film is shown, it turned out that almost all gone into the marriage. Plan studio burned, flying schedule. In addition, separate platoons of soldiers and military equipment could not hold forever. And Leonid F. went to Moscow to accept Defense Minister Marshal Grechko.
First Marshal yelled at Bykov, did not mince words, and then had a long conversation with him, after which instructed to deal with the filmmakers to his assistant. Upon his return to Zagorsk Bykov had a heart attack. On the "fast", he was taken to the hospital, where he wrote his famous letter-testament, addressed to friends and director Nicholas Mashchenko actor and director Ivan Mykolaichuk ... More spent a month in Kiev Leonid F. hospital where he was taken from Zagorsk.
The next day, after discharge, he appointed the shooting of one of the most difficult scenes paintings, in which he participated, and which required him enormous emotional and physical strength. In spite of everything, the painting was finished.
However, the very heart attack was not the last. The next blow struck Leonid F. Oles favorite son, gets caught in the story of the robbery of a jewelry store. When the Bulls learned that his son was arrested, he had a second heart attack. Fortunately, if you can call it happiness guy "got off" year of treatment in a psychiatric hospital. Because of the events occurred with his son fell ill and the Bulls decided to abandon the State Prize of Ukraine for the painting "Aty-Baty, were soldiers," but by order of the Communist Party of Ukraine Leonid F. Award brought straight home.
When the disease is slightly released, the Bulls went into the studio Dovzhenko to resign. This was reported to the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Ukraine Shcherbytsky that Bykov adored. Scherbitsky personally met with your favorite actor. What they said, who knows. But after their conversation, the Bulls took his statement.
However, looking at the official line of biography Leonid Bykov, yet should not deceive ourselves. All these triumphs, awards, of course, sincerely pleased him, but his soul was troubled. Universal flattery, servility, corruption that prevailed around, would not let him live and work. Even the official acceptance of a film like "Aty-Baty, were soldiers," in which there was no policy, no dissent, was rather difficult. While viewing the representative of State cinema suddenly ... snoring, sleep smorenny. Then he woke up, started asking stupid questions: "Why is your painting in such a strange name? Some children's rhymes ... "Thank God, at present have the heart to contradict him and fight off many of his arraignment and comments.
After removing the two beautiful movie about the war, the Bulls suddenly decided to get away from the subject and in 1978 began to shoot the picture "Alien." Filming took place in difficult conditions for the bulls. First of all, it was hard emotionally. Being honest and decent man, he could not see how other people, and his colleagues, vysluzhivayas to power, literally tearing teeth each other in the struggle for material goods (apartments, zagranpoezdki), write denunciations. Bulls did not join the ranks of the Communist Party, although all these years it is constantly pulled back. In the end, all these external circumstances led to the tragedy.
In early 1979, the Bulls suddenly made a will in the name of his friends - Nicholas Mashchenko and Ivan Mykolaychuk. In this testament Bulls requested in case of his death (he wrote: "I will leave in the near future, I feel that no longer stretch") to take care of his family, to sell the car, etc. In the same letter, the Bulls gave orders, and about their future funeral. He wanted to bury his only friends, without any formal participation (memorial service in the House of Cinema, the speech of officials, etc.). "I do not want any speeches over the grave, only to tell:" Goodbye "- and sing my favorite song -" Darkie & quot ;. Otherwise, I'll get out of the coffin and leave you & quot ;. That's the brief was unusual letter. And soon after it was written Bulls really died.
When April 11, 1979 Bykov returned to his car with a garden near Kiev, he suffered another heart attack.
At the time of the death of Bykov was only 50 years old.