The deepest cave

Crows Cave (cave Kruber, Krubera Raven) - the deepest in the world of caving. It is located in an array of Arabica in the Gagra Range in Abkhazia. It is part of the system that owns the cave and Arabica. The cave is branched into two branches: Nekuybyshevskuyu and basic, which, in turn, divides into several smaller branches. Depth-first - about 1300 meters, the second - about 2196 meters.

The depth of the cave - 2,140 (± 9) meters. The previous record in 1710 meters depth was established in 2001 Russian-Ukrainian team. In 2004, during three expeditions to the depth of the study area each time increased. At this stage, Ukrainian command crossed mark 2000 m below the ground level. It happened for the first time in the history of speleology. In October 2005, new, unexplored part of the team were found CAVEX, and explore the cave became even deeper. This expedition confirmed that the depth of the cave reaches currently 2140 (± 9) meters deep.

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Subvertical karst cave type, is a series of wells connected by a stile and galleries. The deepest pitches: 115, 110 and 152 meters. At a depth of 200 meters of the cave divides into two main branches: Nekuybyshevskaya (2010 depth 1697 meters) and the main branch (the current depth of 2191 meters). Starting from a depth of 1300 meters, the main branch is branched into many other branches. At the bottom of the well known than 8 siphons (located at depths of 1,400 to 2,144 meters). The cave is located in a limestone is thicker, and the bottom part of the depth of 1600 meters lies in limestone black. Waters Krubera Cave is powered by the shortest river in the world - Reprua River.

The cave is open and the first study to a depth of 95 m Georgian cavers in 1960. Then got her first name: Krubera cave, in honor of his father Russian Karst AA Krubera.

Forgotten Cave Krasnoyarsk cavers investigated again in 1968. They used the name of the cave: Siberian.

In 1982-1987, the cave again remembered. This time it was investigated Kiev cavers to a depth of 340 m., A third title: cave crow. After the Georgian-Abkhaz war of 1992-1993 Republic was cut off from public access by cavers. Work resumed in August 1999, when the people of Kiev for one expedition reached a depth of 700 m. In August and September 2000, the same team reached a depth of 1410 m. In January 2001 the expedition Spelelogicheskoy Ukrainian Association with the participation of the Moscow cavers put world record, reaching 1710 m. At this branch shut up impassable obstruction. In August 2003, the team dived Cavex fourth siphon in the side branch and stopped at a depth of 1680 m with a free continuation. In July 2004, the same team in the same branch set a new world record - 1775 m. In August of the same year, the expedition explored the UCA another branch. Once again the world record - 1840 m. In two months, in October 2004, UCA has organized a new expedition. October 19 for the first time in the history of speleology overcome the 2-kilometer milestone - 2,080 meters.

Many decades palm in the rank of the deepest caves belonged to the French caves Pierre Saint Martin and Jean Bernard, leaving in the bowels of the earth for 1,600-plus yards. However, in 1960, an event occurred which was gradually deprive them of leadership. Cavers working in Abkhazia on the array Arabica, discovered nobody knows before the cave. In that year, they were able to go down to just 150 meters, which is, of course, not only did not give the right to name the new deepest cave, but even classify it to the deepest caves in the world. The only thing that could make cavers, so give it a new name of the cave - the cave in honor of the founder of Krubera Russian and Soviet karstology (the science of the effects of water on the rocks) Alexander Krubera.

Then began a long history, reminiscent of the auction, which takes place in every cave after opening: every regular speleological expedition announced the release of the new depth - 210, 340, 710 meters ... It is worth noting that just at around 340 meters of cave Krubera received a new name - Ravens. In the future, both of these informal names merged into one official - Krubera Raven.

The deepest point is available for a visit of two other entrances to the cave system Arabica: caves and Kuibyshev Genrihovoy Abyss, which are located further on the mountainside. Cave entrance from another representative system Berchilskoy cave is 100 m higher than the cave crow. The total depth of the bunch is about 2240.

In 2002, the Russian-Ukrainian team of cavers officially recognized pioneer of the deepest caves in the world

INTERNATIONAL UNION cavers registered depth record set by Russian-Ukrainian team of explorers SAVEH caves. Brave of this team was able to descend to a depth of 1710 meters - is the length of the underground pit caves Crow, which is located in the mountain range of Arabica in Abkhazia. On this day it is the deepest cave in the world. Official recognition of this record had to wait two years - these are the formal requirements of the International Union. Themselves discoverers say that the record of this cave - merit "of all Soviet cavers».

The fact that in these mountains many deep caves, cavers knew long ago. Back in the early XX century, the famous French scientist karstology Martel, who conducted research in those parts, he came to the conclusion that at Arabica extensive underground voids. But it so happened that the cave entrance Crow, appeared subsequently besides the deepest in the world, was found only in the 60s. Georgian cavers who discovered the well, tried to investigate it, but retreated before the too narrow passage. They are classified as a shallow cave, but promising.

In the 80s, Soviet scientists conducted an experiment on Arabica by tracing groundwater and once again confirmed the presence of the deepest in the world there is a karst hydraulics. What did the researchers? They colored the water underground rivers harmless substance flyuoristsinom and stocked water sources at the foot traps, soon recorded output flyuoristsina. It became clear that a complex of caves has not been studied. Ost shaft axis for nasty: Can a man walk in the tunnels? Check out this was only possible in practice.
In the mid-80s Kiev cavers made several attempts to conquer the crows. When using rock hammer and punch, they were able to "wade" to the level of 340 meters. Then the cave is not "empty". Too narrow passage would require a lot of time to overcome it. Conquest Crow postponed indefinitely.

Then came the war in Abkhazia - not the best time for speleological discoveries. And only in 1999, one of the team members SAVEH Alexei Zhdanovich "zakachnulsya", as cavers, the window of the cave and found the entrance to the new tunnel. "At such moments, -rasskazyvaet Denis failed, head SAVEH - pulse quickens and begins the most exciting stage - the first ascent. You do not know what awaits you around the next corner and galleries that will be the end multimeter well ».

And "the next corner" daredevils expect a series of cascades. At that time, in '99, the cave has taken them to the level of 700 meters. Further penetration into the interior of the earth was postponed for another year. "It is difficult to calculate the time of the expedition, when master new tunnels, says Denis failure - because you never know how long it takes the passage of a plot, sooner or later, end products, time, effort, and you have to turn off the expedition until next year" .

Usually just the stages and passes the study of caves. Sometimes the result of several expeditions can become deadlocked gallery, and sometimes you can stumble on a small window in the wall of the well, which then becomes the beginning of a new path. "The cave has gone" - say cavers in this situation.
In summer 2000, cavers reached a crow to a mark of 1400 meters. Premonition of them suggests that this is not the limit.

The team is back on SAVEH arabica in January 2001. Hardly camped like two guys - Ilia Zharkov and Konstantin Mukhin - the evening went to the cave exploration. They returned only in the morning. Tired, they nevertheless did not hide delight: depleted ropes and hooks, they reached the depth of 1680 meters, stopping before the start of a new well. Incredibly, it was already a record! The deepest point on the mark in 1632 meters (Austrian cave Lamprechtsofen) could not resist! Next descent cavers to increase the depth of 1710 meters Crow! Cave Hall ended with a lake. Hall was given the name "Hall of Soviet cavers" in order to emphasize that the record - this is the result of several generations of cavers.

Under the rules of the International Union of cavers, setting the record must be confirmed with a detailed map of the cave. To do this a few more days cavers conducted topographic mapping, filmed altimeter - depth sensor, built-in regular hours, using eklimetra measured angles eg
clone was determined by compass azimuth tape on centimeters vymeryat length of the well. Then all the data obtained were entered in a special notebook with indelible pages. And this notebook as evidence record dive was sent to the headquarters of the International Union of cavers.


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