Top warships of the twentieth century (10 pics + text)

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Among the ten best ships of the world there was not one of ours. As well as a Japanese, Italian, French. Six out of ten positions are occupied by the Americans. Two places to pick up a British and two Germans generously contributed.

10. The cruiser "Hood" (Great Britain)

HMS Hood (EVK "Hood") - British battle cruiser fleet. Named in honor of Samuel Hood, British admiral of the XIX century. During the construction of "Hood" was planned to take into account the experience of the Battle of Jutland, which resulted in the UK KVMF lost three battle cruisers. However, despite all the improvements the ship died May 24, 1941 in a battle with the German battleship "Bismarck". Tselnoklepany body assembled on the longitudinal framing system. The ship has two internal vertical fin at the DP and the dock keels. The body is divided by watertight bulkheads up to 25 compartments. All transverse bulkheads reach the upper deck. Double bottom extends for 218 meters. There were bilge keels. Stem yachting form. Boiler and turbine department occupied 90 m amidships. The ratio L / B = 8.42. Increased rainfall of 1 cm - 50 tons. Metacentric height in normal displacement - 0, 99m, with full - 1, 28 m. 69 ° angle sunset and 73 ° respectively. 8 orudy caliber 381 mm (15 & quot; / 42 Mark I) in the twin tower installations such as Mk.II All ammunition 640 rounds (80 on the trunk). In wartime, the barrel 132. Maximum vertical elevation angle of 30 °, with the range of a projectile 27 200 m. (147 CC) field of fire - 300 ° for each tower. Charging at any position of the barrel (to angles less than 20 °). Turn carried out using hydraulic actuators. The angular velocity of rotation of the tower - 2 ° / sec. Vertikalnaya speed pickup barrel - 5 ° / sec. Diameter Barbette - 9 meters. Tower GC were in the form of a polyhedron, their book was carried out Krupp cemented armor thick forehead - 381 mm, the front side - 305 mm; on the sides and stern - 279 mm, the roof - 127 mm. The total mass of the rotating part of the tower of the Civil - 860 tons. Mine caliber 140-mm rapid-fire gun sample BL.Mk.I installations CPII, in the sample carriage Mk.II, the elevation angle of 30 °, the firing range 16 200 m (87 CBT) booking: front 38 mm; on each side of 25 mm; rear open. 150 rounds on the barrel.
Anti-aircraft guns: 4102 mm gun barrel length of 45 calibers QF.Mk.V sample in sample installations Mk.III.HA, the elevation angle of 80 °. Machine gun mounted on a sample Mk.IV. Guns and guidance manual charging rate of 9-12 rounds per minute, range in height 8700 meters. Ammunition 200 rounds on the barrel. 2 47-mm cannon salute Hotchkiss boekomlektom with 64 shots on the trunk. (dismantled in 1939)
Reservations: 305-mm oblique (12 °) armor belt, height of 2 to 9 m, set on laying teak for 171, 4 meters (Behind him trim body had a thickness of 51 mm) from him to the upper deck (width 2 75 m) 178 mm belt.





9. "pocket battleship" (Germany)

Heavy cruiser of the "Deutschland" - type heavy cruiser Kriegsmarine WWII. There were built 3 units: "Deutschland» (Deutschland), «Admiral Scheer» (Admiral Scheer) and "Admiral Graf Spee» (Admiral Graf Spee).
In the pre-war German Navy battleships were registered (Panzerschiffe). On January 25, 1940 reclassified in the heavy cruiser. The naval literature is widespread, the term "pocket battleship» (Pocket battleship) - an ironic classification of ships, was invented by the British press of the 1930s. The housing design "pocket battleships" differed significantly from the German light cruisers, famous for its fragility. "Deutschland" had long ocean raids and to ensure reliability approached very seriously. Although widely used in the construction of welding, all the responsibility of the United duplicated klёpkoy share of aluminum in construction accounted for only 1%. As a result, the cruiser had no problems with the strength, to ensure that work and internal armored bulkhead.
On the "Deutschland" established for traditional German navy foremast in the form of a hollow tube, which placed the wheelhouse and rangefinder post. Experience has shown that such a structure to vibrate, and its subsequent cruisers were replaced by easily recognizable, bashennopodobnuyu superstructure. Trump card of new ships is their main gauge - 283 mm guns SK C / 28. Designed from scratch, they had no equal among weapons of comparable tonnage ships. Barrel length was 52, 35 caliber projectile initial velocity of 910 m / s, but it was quite acceptable survivability. Use three types of ammunition, all weighing 300 kg:
The armor-piercing, containing 7, 84 kg of explosives (2, 6% of the weight of the projectile);
Polubroneboyny [11] - 16, 94 kg (5, 65%);
Explosive - 23, 3 kg (7, 8%).
This combination provided good ammunition to fire at a variety of targets. The firing range at the maximum elevation angle of 40 ° reached 36,475 meters. Ammunition ranged from 105 to 120 shells per gun. Charging system for a fixed angle of 2 ° allows up to three volleys in a minute on the barrel, the practical rate of no more than two. These characteristics provide assurance defeat of lightly-ships and even the heavy protected cruisers were vulnerable to any distance.
The photo - a heavy cruiser "Deutschland»



8. The aircraft carrier "Essex" (USA)

Type "Essex" (eng. Essex class) - a series of heavy shock US aircraft carriers during World War II. Designed in 1938-1940, while originally intended to build only one ship of this type, in addition to the aircraft carriers of the "Yorktown". However, soon it was ordered two more, and the entry of the US into the war in December 1941 required the mass construction of aircraft carriers, as that is the most modern type has been selected, "Essex". In total, from 1940 to 1945 it was built 24 type aircraft carrier "Essex", making them the most numerous series of aircraft carrier in history, not counting the escorts, as well as the most numerous series of naval vessels with a displacement of more than 20 000 tonnes.
The first of the carriers of the "Essex" was commissioned in December 1942, and in 1943 they became the main type of heavy US aircraft carriers and actively used until the end of the war, with at the same time none of them was lost, although a few of the carriers received serious damage. In the early postwar years, 14 of them were put in the reserve, with part of it is not output. In the years 1949-1953, most of them underwent a major upgrade, with the upgraded ships became known as the "type" Oriskany ", named after the first of them, rebuilt for another berth. As such, they have been used in a number of post-war conflicts, including the Korean and Vietnam wars, but in the late 1960s - early 1970s, most of these obsolete ships were decommissioned. Only one of them, "Lexington", remained in service as a training aircraft carrier until 1992.


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