I love to live! Quite seriously. Perhaps the most important ingredient in my love life is a beauty. I love the sunsets! Sunsets! Fate decreed that I could watch them every day (good, sleep is very rare).
In those quiet moments, away from civilization and other technical nonsense, forget about time. Once I had six months protorchat in a rather unpleasant place where the hours have heard only the unwanted people at a time. If you measured the time and then only on the "point to point" using, you will not believe, graduation "steps". - How many are you going to be here? - A hundred paces! - Are you sure? The path does not close. I think you overestimate yourself. - No sir! Six hundred paces wait for me on the spot!
Funny were times, but let's leave. The problem was different - returned from a fascinating journey, I have a long time to get used to the calendar, to seconds, to minutes to weeks. Especially for weeks. I'm still confused, when the week starts, and a name from the next day. Seconds and minutes thing is pretty useful, but it has side effects, which I will discuss later, days - is generally a separate category unchanged, but the week - what is it? Why seven days? And, say, a month? 30 days each - why, because the lunar cycle is 29 days?
I decided to rummage through bins for a long time, tasteful, laughing, learning the true cause of this graduation! Uh, ladies and gentlemen, to tell you now ... The funny thing is after the second Picchu. This causes such a terrible resonance for our imperfect world, where everything will be solved very spontaneously, I wept after the joyous laughter. It's a shame that all this was so.
7 Picchu via TADs
So there lived the ancient Egyptians. The people they were funny and savvy. What is their symbol & quot; + & quot; and & quot; - & quot ;! The world they portrayed using hieroglyphs. Legs walking along the letters - are, respectively, & quot; + & quot ;, against & quot; - & quot ;.
And these enlightened and funny characters accurately counted the days of the year - from solstice to solstice. The days they do not occupy a special niche and were absolutely uncle Ra from sunset to sunset guys Sothis (which was 24 hours). It turned out they had exactly 365 days. They smashed the year for months - exactly 12 pieces of 30 days each. But there were still five days!
Where are their Delhi? And nowhere. Just put in the end of the year even close, and the letter and portrayed - "a year and five days, reaching for him." It was a kind of "transitional period".
On the week, they came and that is easier - they had no weeks! Just been "stages of the Month" - all three of them for ten days. Conveniently, you know! And no you Monday and Friday - always worked seven days a week. Holidays only.
I myself, to be honest, I tend to ancient Egypt! Be sure to talk about other things happening at that glorious time. Progress was flying, flying right now ... But ...
This was the so-called "solar calendar". Most scientists say that time - calendar was artificial. That, however, did not prevent him from being sufficiently precise and very ingenious invention.
But in ancient Greece, creates magical scribe. It is not known who first came up with the idea to spit on the sun and the natural order of things, but was created "lunar calendar." It has been 354 days. Every 8 years (oktaeteridiya) for the year was adding as much as 90 days, in order to reduce the difference with the sun.
In ancient Rome, finished calendar. Now it consisted of 10 months, and contained 304 days. I can not even imagine the face of the Roman farmers entering the harvest in the middle of November, but whether it was important to them? Think. We shall return to this. And yet - will continue.
As you can imagine 10 months is not enough. Yes, and most Roman, shall we say, of the kings dreamed of the simplest and most correct way forever go down in history. So Numa Pompilius added as many as two new months - January and February. By the way, in the Roman calendar was a general lack of coordination - in 7 months was 29 days, 4 was 31 and in poor February - 28. Subsequently, the calendar has changed, as the days of the year - to create entire College of Pontiffs, but it did not facilitate the situation.
But then was the funniest moment in the history of the calendar.
(in the picture you can see the so-called first Greek "computer").
There is no one Caesar, who slightly strained divergence date and the actual weather outside, completely fed up with the stubborn written and verbal protests of progressive forms of the public about the imperfections of the calendar. World demand reforms.
Scratching his head, Julius called on the carpet astronomer Sozigena and so asked him what to do, that the scientist fright added in the new year as much as 90 days (compensated for the eight-year gap), increasing the total length of up to 455 days. Caesar again scratched his head and said "no, too much something."
Then I was offered another version of events - would be 365 days and 1/4, which would amount to exactly one "solar" year. The king approved, and for the distribution of the "new" days on the calendar took personally.
To start one of the months is named after the greatest reformer - July. He was lengthened to 31 smdney dignity. Year offered considered from January 1, increased at the same time he is also a month to 31.
And then Caesar, apparently as a great military leader, considered by his phalanx fist - January - 31 February - 30 March - 31, etc. Counts, he did not, and continued expense (otherwise would have had to loop), what, then, rightly offended Augustus, whose days in the month received less than it should be at the score in the fist. However, once again reaching in January and were missing one day (year 365), Julius clenched heart compensated for this loss by February.
His month August king also decided to extend to 31 days (yes to Caesar more! No way!), The missing day, he withdrew from the ... what do you think? February! As a result, the old-fashioned poor February was 28 days in the month. August decided to cheer him up, and every four years the extra 1/4 shape in the night, which was added in February.
And what do we have withdrawn from this cautionary tale? Julian calendar made quite funny - at random, at the whim of the two kings. And in ancient Egypt used a similar classification zadoooooolgo to reign as the Julia and Augustus. Progressive people of Europe that is already there.
However, this calendar has a great future - he was accepted by the Vatican, as the official version, and in Russia we gladly accepted it and used until ... This below.
But one fact calluses all eyes - well, not a Catholic or even a Christian calendar was drawn up, and very cloudy dictator potentates. And so it went until the XVI century, when Pope Gregory one n-tsaty said, "Enough!".
Of total effort by the whole diocese was found a mistake in the Julian calendar, in consequence of which every 128 years accumulates an extra day. As a result, through the n-tsat hundred years in July would be in August! "It's impossible!" Screamed the priests and created their own, own, wholly Christian calendar, called "Gregorian", which statistical error was already 3200 years old! The new version was received "with enthusiasm" the whole world.
I do not know what there did not like in the "new style" of the Orthodox Church, but in Russia (and Georgia) and to this day we celebrate the religious holidays according to the Julian calendar, nothing to do with Christianity does not have.
The funny thing is that the serial number and date of the Pope of the new year according to the old calendar coincide.
Why do we celebrate at different times of the old and new year, as well as the religious holidays? It's simple - we celebrate the date already counted and the addition of statistical error. And since we live is clearly less than 128 years, the time to check out the difference stupidly did not have time.
However, it lived up to the adoption of the Julian calendar, the calendar is so important why? And not just important, but it needs a statistically valid model without errors? However, why not take a more precise version of the calendar, with an error of millions of years (the good, the technique allows)? And it is not necessary to change anything - just have not had time to go through the most 3,200 years, and the calendar to call more beautiful, aka newage! Give your answer, give! On the calendars of other people keep silent - and then begin to talk about all sorts of Indian tribes, but about deeply beloved Japan, and it will take a lot of pages. It is better to tell you about a week.
Historically, we know that the version of the account of periodization was a huge number of months - from 3 to 14 days (as measured Germans live). The most famous, in addition to the 7-day's rest, a "decade" - 10 dnevki Egypt, mentioned above.
Why seven days? In ancient Babylon, somebody liked it for seven days. It's just about a quarter of the lunar cycle, and in Babylon loved "lunar calendar" shortcomings which I mentioned above. But why do a quarter? Not a third? Just more ancient noticed that in heaven there on a certain day all light and disappear the next. And - the process is looped. In honor of these days, and the stars were named. Saturn (Saturday), the Sun (Sunday), Moon (Monday), etc. It would be more light - it would be more days.
It so happened that on the seventh day God according to the Bible, was impatient to rest. Since then, but still under the influence of the colonization of Europe with the planting of their cultural values in the world and the seven-day walks and the Gregorian style.
Although the Soviet Union used the 5- and 6-day week. In 1929-30's week was a 5-day, every employee had unfixed one output. September 1, 1931 it was replaced by a 6-day week with a fixed day of rest. The usual 7-day week was introduced June 26, 1940.
And you know, I came to one conclusion - it's fucking nobody wants. But, for example, why in days 24 hours? Because the night - 12 hours a day - 12 hours, because in one hour 60 minutes and 60 seconds in a minute - so says the old! Well, they used shestirichnuyu system, but we, with its modern mind goes on and on ... believe ... Not wanting any to know such things as the Conservatives out of this world, not wanting to step on the stereotypes imposed on us is not yet known when and by whom is unknown. If we are such a long system, useless vain, existed for millennia, not to mention the fact that it took one knows when and who knows what can we say about the substitution of moral and ethical principles, so sharply different from the ancient world? No, gentlemen. Nothing changes. Far from civilization, everything is different - there is quiet happiness. The concept of time slipping and are replaced by a totally different - you start to measure a period of time on their personal feelings, time slows down .... And for someone faster. However, because no one believes your time, you live only as long as you live, not exchanged for the year, and even a second, because they simply do not.
However, it is a different story. Before the New Year just over a month. You now know how did this tradition and how this date was adopted. Good luck. Merte his life is not in seconds and years, and in happiness. About what I wanted to say.