When invented to celebrate your birthday?

For a long time no one to celebrate the birthday had not occurred.

There are different hypotheses about where tradition has gone to celebrate birthdays. On one of them, it all started with the cult of Mithras - ancient Iranian god of the sun, which was brought to Europe the soldiers of the Roman Empire. Some traditions of Mithraism and pagan rituals (such as Saturnalia) - cultic meal, custom make each other gifts - were the first prototypes denrozhdennyh festivities.

According to another version, birthday even older. In wild tribes there was a belief that the day of birth of a person makes a particularly vulnerable to evil spirits, and tribesmen surrounds and protects it with his wishes, and then offerings. Prototypes birthday may have been days when the whole family headed by a leader and shaman came to worship their idols.

Celebrate the birthday began in ancient Egypt, later this custom spread to Assyria. But it only concerns people outstanding - the pharaohs and kings, as well as their male heirs. The first written evidence of the celebration of the birthday of the Egyptian pharaohs are about to 3000 BC Staged in the palace banquet, which was attended in addition to the nobles and servants and slaves. Often birthday Pharaoh released from prison inmates.

For a long time the birthdays of women not only noticed, but did not even recorded. As far as we know, the first woman honored with an annual celebration was Cleopatra II, Queen of Egypt (185-116gg. BC).

The ancient Greeks celebrated the birthdays of their gods, 12 times a year (for example, the birthday of Artemis, goddess of the moon and of hunting, celebrated the sixth day of each month). As for mere mortals, such a privilege enjoyed only the head of the family - a husband and father, and then only once a year. Women and children do not pay attention. But neither then nor later, during the Middle Ages, birthdays, people hardly noticed. In the bulk of humanity does not use the calendar. And the life of every individual meant nothing.

With the spread of Christianity, the tradition of celebrating someone's birthday disappeared. The early Christians viewed the world as a place of mourning and felt that happy event - not the birth and care of a person, his deliverance from the sinful world. In addition, the traditions inherited from the Gentiles - the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans, were not encouraged church.

It was only during the Reformation the opportunity to arrange a holiday, regardless of the days dedicated to any saint, suddenly seemed very attractive. Initially solemn birthdays were the privilege of kings. Then the ceremony allowed the children - the first country to start celebrating children's birthdays, became Germany.

Gradually softened position of the church, and to the XII century parish priests brought the book of registration of birth and baptism. Then in the family and began to celebrate birthdays, not only adult men, but also women and children.

In the XIII century by German peasants formed the ritual of child birth. Child woke at dawn songs and brought his cake with candles. But the cake is eaten, but gradually burns in him replaced with new candles until the evening, when the family gathered for dinner. Birthday blow out the candles and make a wish. To wish come true, I had to keep it secret, and blow out all the candles with one breath. Following the ceremony, the cake was divided between the gathering. Candles on it was as much as the hero of the occasion years plus one candle, symbolizing the moment of birth. As for Christmas or New Year everyone brings gifts Santa Claus or Father Christmas, as birthday gifts bring a special "denrozhdenny dwarf." This figure remained in German folklore until the early twentieth century.

Well, now sing Happy Birthday in many languages ​​and in many countries.


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