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The special effects, which were made without the use of computer graphics (42 pics + text)
I do not want to offend the Hollywood special effects experts in part, but we have the impression that with the development of digital technology ingenuity have significantly diminished. Every blockbuster there will at least one scene that seems borrowed from a computer game. So maybe we should stop and pay tribute to the creators of those mind-blowing tricks that were done the old fashioned way - with a stuntman, patterns and fantasy bordering on insanity.
1. "The Dark Knight" - chase scene
This is the same pursuit, which ended their days Batmobile, Joker trailer, dump truck, police cars without an account, and a bunch of cars, which has managed to be "in the wrong place." And the episode, I must say, was a success.
Batman on a motorcycle should get an Oscar every year.
Two points of the chase deserve special attention. It seems that they just could not be done without the aid of computer graphics, unless, of course, not meant to be spectacular suicide stunt.
The first episode - as soon as the Batmobile, gaining speed ...
... And gets hit a garbage truck that had boxers called "uppercut".
That is not very difficult to organize with the help of modern digital technologies. However, the film's director Christopher Nolan prefers not to get involved with computer graphics, if there is any possibility to do without it.
Here and in this scene he has managed model Batmobile and this garbage truck.
Both machines are supplied with radio-controlled devices and literally "slapped" each other on a street in the outskirts of Chicago. The result you see on the screen.
Batmobile and turns 180 degrees, by the way, is also made with the help of radio-controlled model.
The second point More Entertainment - 18-wheel trailer makes the Joker killing "somersault through the head." If that was the model, it is very plausible.
To do this trick has developed a unique technology. To raise such a machine into the air, a team of experts in special effects has invented a mechanism that produces a powerful jet of steam.
That certainly would appeal to many fans of clever car.
After this problem was solved, there is the following: how to do this dizzying stunts right in the heart of the banking district of New York? And how do you think they unscrew? Built around a fake trailer city? To finish it with the help of computer graphics? Nothing like this! They went to downtown Chicago, blocked the street and turned his trailer. Truly.
Because Batman would have done so.
Computer graphics - for the lazy.
2. "Independence Day" - Fire Wall
Can any number of fun of this movie plot inconsistencies, but its box office success was still one indisputable reason: an episode in which a fireball slowly envelops New York. This spectacle justify every cent spent on the ticket. This stage was built and the advertising company. All commercials - fire makes its way between the skyscrapers of New York. To many it was enough to spend the night before the premiere in line at the movie theater.
After this scene could go home.
Even today, this scene seems surprisingly realistic, especially when compared with digital openly in "2012" by Roland Emmerich, who are more like an expensive graphics, very high quality computer toys.
The difference, as you may have guessed, is that scene from "Independence Day" made without the computer. It was a real fire.
The main difficulty was to get the fire to move in the right direction, "wrap around" at the sides of the building. The fire in normal conditions are not particularly willing to spread horizontally, which, in most cases, is not bad, but there is a completely different situation. Here we are dealing with an alien weapon and fire on him, therefore, should not behave like ours, the Earth. As conceived by the writers, it must first "spill" of the city, and then slowly "crawl" on it, absorbing the houses, streets, neighborhoods ...
The solution was found relatively easy.
What does this remind you of? Okay, do not break down. It is a model of the city, rotated on its side. Perhaps in this way it will be easier to learn
They called their trick "deadly chimney." Here's how: Put the Model "on end", fit the bottom of pyrotechnics, the top strengthen the camera. Then arrange explosion and shoot, set the frame rate is several times higher than the standard. Voila! Looking at the result of the normal speed, we get the very, terrifying, unstoppable wall of fire.
3. The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring - a small Hobbit, Gandalf large
Tricks with various actors in the growth of the trilogy made so skillfully that after 27 hours of viewing, you are ready to believe that Elijah Wood and the other actors playing hobbits, really no more than a meter tall.
Such a spectacle go astray confused anyone.
But we live in an age of computer graphics. So what could be the problem? I clicked the mouse on the actor, told the computer to reduce it by 50% and the works ...
Hobbits? Nonsense! Give me a chimpanzee, and what some 20 minutes I bungled you King Kong!
But the true art is not done. And then, one thing when "different-sized" characters are next anywhere in the field. But at different points in the movie we saw Gandalf, Frodo embraces the tiny rides with him in a wagon and sits at the same table. To arrange all this, the director and producer Peter Jackson had to invent a lot of tricks - from the simple to the extremely complex.
Sometimes it was enough to put on a wig child Frodo and removed from the back ...
... Or assemble two separate scene, or using a computer (which really does not) to connect with the body of Frodo's face a little understudy. Still, the most spectacular scenes were done without a computer. With the help of technology, which is called "forced perspective".
The trick is to put the actors at different distances from the camera, and then remove them from such an angle that it seemed that they are close by - one large (the one that was closest to the camera), and another small (the one below). The task just seems simple - because the actors need still somehow interact with each other at the same time, and so that no one would know that they are from each other at a distance.
Let's take a very simple example - the cart Gandalf. In the movie, they are sitting side by side ...
... And in fact the wagon seat consists of two parts. She is sitting on Frodo, it is almost half a meter away from the camera than the one on which the Gandalf. A joint we do not see, because it obscures the body of Ian McKellen (who plays Gandalf).
The problem is that this technology involves shooting at a strictly definite angle, and hence the absolute immobility chamber. How, then, to be with those shots where the camera moves? So, after all computer graphics? Nothing like this. In such scenes like this, at the table ...
... Actors, in fact, sitting at different tables: one human-sized, the other - hobbit ...
... And when the camera moves, everything that is in the frame, too, to move in a way that all the time to maintain the illusion of a "common table". So McKellen had without leaving the image of Gandalf to ride in his chair across the room.
That is not easy in such a ripe old age
4. "Dracula" by Bram Stoker - the whole movie
It was in 1992, when the digital effects just become fashionable, and "Jurassic Park" and "Terminator 2" opened a new era in film. Francis Ford Coppola took the film adaptation of "Dracula" by Bram Stoker, and Keanu Reeves - for that ruin every scene, which was busy.
Yes, did you do anything! Though eyebrow commandments!
The studio has spared no money on it to get to the exit and stylish surreal picture. And since the world of cinema at the time was addicted to computer graphics, the best specialists, which is only found in this area have been made available to Coppola.
The latter, without hesitation, fired all computer users, and instead hired their 29-year-old son, Roman. The result - no graphics. You see exactly what was taken. For example, the scene where Reeves goes to train. On the screen it looked so:
Looking Gary Oldman, soaring in the clouds closed over the window of the car. To get this shot, they shot a moving landscape, then projected at him, and then scrolled through the window all this Reeves sitting in the car. What you see - the projection of the projection on the projection. But there is something pohlesche:
Usually these things are done simply: By train removed separately - the book, and then it all connects the computer.
Not in this case! They made a little model train and a giant - the book. And removed them simultaneously. So that everything is present.
5. "Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind" - bizarre transformation inflamed imagination
The plot of this film, in a nutshell, is this: the two lovers after a quarrel in turn apply to a company that provides services to erase memories. Along the way, the hero (Jim Carrey) changes his mind to remove from memory his girlfriend (Kate Winslet).
But too late. In the end, young people learn and begin again with a clean slate.
Most of the action takes place in the fevered brain of the hero Carrie, and at the same time as the aforementioned negligent technology firms erase his memories. Memories jump as record on scratched CD, creating a disjointed, surreal world where people are and what surrounds them, then suddenly disappear, then appear from nowhere and for no apparent reason.
Take, for example, the scene where the protagonist Carrie Joel quarrel with his girlfriend, which is removed in the dressing room rage, disappears, materialized in the kitchen, and then, before leaving, appears at the front door ... And all this in one shot!
Or another episode where Joel enters ... into itself and talks there with the doctor who will undertake later to erase his memory.
For a moment the camera turns away from Joel, and turns to the doctor ...
... And again returned to Joel, but it is quite another Joel, from his own own memories.
And so a few times
Of course, this task could be solved by making the computer for Carrie double. And, perhaps, this option would suit any normal director. Unless he does not have such a theatrical experience and a passion for naturalness in the frame, like Michel Gondry.
Gondry went with the actors as it is accepted in any theater. He made them run and change at an incredible rate.
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Michel Gondry and Jim Carrey exchanged stinging remarks.
True true! For the scene where Kate-Clementine inexplicably appears alternately in one and then in another room, they made an additional door leading from the bathroom to the kitchen. And Kate had to run to the next point before it will reach up to the camera.
The shooting frame with a split Carrie were much more painful. When the camera is turned away from the actor for a few seconds, he had time to change costume to cross to the other side of the room and transform into another Joel. They had to shoot many takes of that, in the end, dead-tired Gondry and Carrie quarreled. The actor claimed that the director puts his task is physically impossible. Of course, we have seen the result on the screen, but I still believe that this dispute Carrie was right.
6. "Apollo 13" - weightlessness
How do I get to fly in a movie actor knows any child.
Step 1: Suspend the actor on the ropes.
Step 2: Remove the rope from the footage that our computer time easier.
So, solving the problem with weightlessness in the movie "Apollo 13", it seemed ridiculously easy thing. Or focus on the ropes, or, at worst, make a computer for this scene the actors ...
But here intervened NASA: we, they say, after all, a man on the moon sent. Have you heard? We know what to do! To neutralize the effect of gravity and be done with it!
To "neutralize gravity 'the filmmakers was isolated modified aircraft with affectionate nickname" Blevontina. " This machine KC-135, belonging to NASA, was the time to do just to overcome gravity, especially not from Earth.
This happens as follows: the aircraft climbs sharply, then lowers the engine power to a minimum ...
As a result, passengers find themselves in a few minutes of weightlessness, exactly the same kind of experience the astronauts on board the spacecraft.
Normally the aircraft used for training astronauts, but for the team, "Apollo 13", he became a film set.
Bill Paxton was happy like a child
7. "Escape from New York" - A computer model of New York on the monitor aircraft
The film was shot in 1981, and its plot is set in the "future" 1997, in a post-apocalyptic New York, where Manhattan has turned into an isolated area for dangerous criminals. In the 80 with computer graphics it was tight. A plane of Kurt Russell's blood from his nose had to provide the Monitor with a graphical representation of the panorama of the city.
Zalepushno Well, yeah ... But it looks computer graphics 80.
So it had to masters of special effects to portray without computer graphics computer graphics.
Then, removing the sequel, they will cost and no story.
Unscrew these guys with a rare grace: they needed the old, repeatedly used the model of New York, a roll of green tape and black light (which practically does not allow visible light, but absolutely indispensable, such as in forensics, which is used to detect traces of blood, urine, sperm or saliva, in the authentication of bank notes, etc.). Then they painted the model in black color, attached to the tape miniature buildings, including the lamp and lifted up his work on a film camera.
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For five bucks and wit made a breakthrough in the movie 80.
Thank you for your patience. I have all
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8 has disadvantages. If I could write for that ...