Kremlin. How it all began

There was a time-honored tradition - Ppihodit in Kpeml chepez vopota Spasskaya tower with a bare head. Hapushitelya-Gawker or nesmyshlenogo ppiezzhego napod punished immediately, making fifty paz bow to the tower. For centuries, evolved and gradually became vosppinimatsya as a matter of pazumeyuscheesya representations for that Spassky vopota - Chief, papadny input-entry into Kpeml, one of the dominant soopuzheny on lupus area.

tower was built in 1491 in the great reign of Ivan III the Italian architect Pietro Antonio Solari. This is evidenced by the white stone slab with commemorative inscriptions that are installed on the tower itself - is the first plaques in the ancient capital. One inscription in Latin, is placed over the vent gate travel strelnitsa from Red Square, the other - over the gate of the tower from the Kremlin. On the second board Slavonic cut: "In the summer of 6999 (1491) July grace of God made byst sion strelnitsa command of Ivan Vasilyevich emperor and autocrat of all Russia and Grand Duke Volodimerskogo and Moscow and Novgorod and Pskov and Tver and Ugra and Vyatka and Perm and the Bulgarian and other
30 summers of his state, as did Peter Anthony Solarium hail Mediolanum ┬╗.

Engraving "Ambassadors Zemsky Sobor on Red Square. Archbishop Theodoret, cellarer Abraham Palitsyn and Boyar Morozov asked a place of execution for the people of Moscow, whom he wished to sovereigns "made a drawing of the XVII century. for the "Book of the election to the throne of the great emperor and the Grand Duke Mikhail Fedorovich┬╗
(Left is St. Basil's Cathedral on the Moat, in the background - Frolovskaya (Spasskaya Tower) and part of the walls of the Kremlin)

Originally the tower was called Frolovskaya at the Church of the Holy Lavra Frolov on Butcher Street, which led the way to the Kremlin through the gate; Church is not preserved. In April 1658 a royal decree came Alexei Mikhailovich to rename all of the Kremlin towers. Frolovskaya tower was renamed in honor of the Saviour Saviour Smolensky placed over the gate travel from Red Square, and in honor of the Savior, which was over the gate of the Kremlin.

Alekseev F.Ya.Krasnaya Square in Moscow. 1801
(The State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow)

From here out shelves, speakers in a military campaign. And here is met kings and ambassadors. Through these gates were made all the big processions through them in the olden days happened the All-Moscow church procession on Palm Sunday, when the patriarch, becoming like Christ, riding on an ass, which is led by the bridle Emperor himself. These gates drove to the Kremlin to the enthronement of Mikhail Romanov was later passed through them solemn entry of all sovereigns during the coronation. However, the room and the tower was used as a prison, especially during the middle of the urban uprisings of the seventeenth century.

Book shop on the bridge Spassky in the XVII century. 1916
(Museum of History and Reconstruction of Moscow, Moscow)

When the tower - the famous astronomical clock. In 1625 the Spassky Tower under the direction of Christopher Golovey Russian blacksmiths, watchmakers Zhdanov, his son and grandson Shumilo Zhdanov Alexey Shumilov clock was installed. 13 bells cast for them caster Cyril Samoilov. With the help of special mechanisms they "played music" and was measured during both day and night, indicated by letters and numbers. Arrows on the dial was not. He spun summing figure for the special markings. In 1706-1709 years By order of Peter I replaced the watch Dutch who have served with some interruptions until the middle of the XIX century. In 1737 the clock damaged by fire and was rebuilt only in 1767. Modern chimes were made brothers N. and P. Budenop in 1851-1852, respectively, and are set to 8-10 tiers Spassky Tower. In October 1917, the clock hit by a shell, and they stopped. In August-September 1918, on the orders of Lenin, they were reinstated watchmaker H. Behrens. Performed at 12 hours 'International', in 24 hours - "You fell a victim ...". Dials chimes diameter of 6, 12 m. Are located on the four sides of the tower. Their rim, numbers and arrows in 1937 were gilded. The height of the Roman numerals - 0, 72 m, length-clockwise - 2, 97 m, min - 3, 27 m. Fight the clock, with a hammer, connected with the mechanism and the bell. Originally watch factory hand, but since 1937 they give birth with the help of three motors. Before the revolution, the tower was crowned double-headed eagle, after the revolution - the red Soviet star, which is crowned by her now.

The Kremlin chimes.


See also

New and interesting