"Using the device Rukeroylya-Deneyruza invented your compatriot and improved me, you can, without any damage to health can immerse yourself in an environment with very different physiological conditions. This device represents a reservoir of a thick sheet iron into which air is injected under pressure into fifty atmospheres. The reservoir is strengthened on the back seat, as a soldier knapsack. The upper part of the tank contains a kind of bellows that regulate the air pressure, bringing it to normal ... »
Jules Verne "Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea»
Diving suit Rukeroylya-Deneyruza, 1870
Not sure about Captain Nemo, as well as about his "Nautilus", but a diving suit Rukeroylya-Deneyruza is not an invention of M. Verne. Spacesuit really existed and has been used successfully in Russia.
Professional class divers appeared in Russia in the early XVII century, with the development of the fisheries on the Volga and in the mouth of Yaik (Urals). At the same time, by the way, and there was the term "diver". Divers engaged in maintenance of state-owned and monastery uchugov (underwater pile barriers, which were driven fish). Elder Irinarh of Saviour Priluki Monastery on a bend of the river Vologda in January 1606, said: "I gave the elder Luthor Yakym for diving and nine pots hit the jackpot." And in 1675, Patriarch Joachim complain to Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich: "A de uchyuzhnomu their fishing without wine is impossible to be alone some limits because divers to become stronger uchyuzhnyh faces and water holes without podmoyki and wine into the water and do not climb on their de Astrakhan uchuzhnomu fishing chinittsa motchane and poruha great deal of strife and ". In general, the problem with these hard workers. Where you sit there and slezesh.
History has preserved a lot of "searchlights" diving equipment that would extend the stay of the person at the bottom of the sea. They were, and all sorts of pots and leather bags and wooden casks, worn on the diver's head. But it seems no one except the inventors of these inventions do not apply. Greek sponge divers, divers Astrakhan and Japanese diver-s breath-hold diving. The first diving projectile really will extend the stay of the person under the water became a diving bell, which is a inverted upside down wooden or copper cup. But the hardiest of the divers could not be in more than half due to the bell "stuffiness and thickening the air».
English astronomer Edmond Halley (yes, the same one, Halley, who predicted the return of Halley's comet) built a diving bell, ventilated using barrels of compressed air, sent in from the surface. Oddly enough, the idea was successful and he Halley four workers spent more than 11 hours on a depth of about 9 yards. Ventilation first diving bell with a pump was achieved in 1788 Smeaton and since then many hours of stay of divers under water ceased to be an extraordinary event.
In 1797, the German A. Klingertom was offered the first "clothing for divers", which really can work under water for more than three minutes. It consisted of waterproof fabric on the shoulders of the diver is attached to the edge of the metal hood that covered his head diver. Inside leather two breathing tubes with a control valve for inhalation and exhalation was fixed into a coil spring to the water pressure is not splyusnulo wall. Pump for ventilation costume was not provided because it was assumed diver can breathe in the water alone. In 1798 Klingerta invention has been tested on the Oder River under Vratslavom. Even a slight dive diver breathing difficulties arose, and at a depth of 6 feet to breathe it became impossible due to the fact that the water pressure on the chest of the diver exceeded the strength of respiratory muscles.
Subsequently Klingert perfected his suit, giving it a completely monstrous appearance. To counter the water pressure on the chest diver Klingert turned the machine into a metal breastplate with attach to her leg. Since the leak of this facility was questionable to cuirass was attached pump for pumping water to enter the unit.
In 1819. emigrated to England German mechanic and gunsmith Augustus Siebe produced the first diving suit made of waterproof material, coupled with a metal helmet. According to the modern classification of this suit was "wet" type, since diving shirt was unsealed. Costume worked on the principle of the diving bell: Since air is supplied diver vessel with a pump in and out from under the bottom edge of the diving shirts are loose to the body. Siebe equipment was successfully tested at work to raise British battleship "Royal George", but bend the diver is not recommended - at inclinations water gets under the shirt.
Diving operations. Engraving 1835
In 1823, the British brothers John and Charles Dean received a patent for a vented suit for firefighters, they in 1828 proposed to use for diving. Breathing air pumped through a hose pump from the shore or a diving boat, the excess air out from under the bottom edge of the helmet. In the Russian outfit Dinov first appeared in 1838 on the Black Sea Fleet in 1848 and has been involved with the rise of the tender "jet", which sank near Novorossiysk Bay at a depth of 20 meters. He commanded the operation of an unknown (not yet known) officer P .S.Nahimov.