We all make mistakes. Sometimes we even think that should do it more often, because none of our actions is not so enthusiastic response of readers as a random error in the number of, say, the number of Australian marsupials bears. Immediately it becomes clear that our readers are literally dozens of dog ate part of marsupials bears, as consider it their duty to report to us immediately. But it's even nice - be aware that you carefully read these literate people. However, in all honesty, we must admit our mistakes on the scale of the planet, of course, worthless. They are unable to change anything, except maybe the mood lover marsupials bears. But in the history of the world there is an error with mean very little, but entailed downright epic consequences.
Text: Katja Chekushina
1. Practice the big bang
Error: isotope 7Li, which is considered inert, actually turned out to be active.
Consequences: radioactive contamination of Bikini Atoll - the largest contaminated areas in US history.
Nuclear bombostroenie at the beginning of their affair was fussy. That is how to calculate and estimate everything on paper first, was not even mentioned: it was urgent to blow. Otherwise, opponents of the nuclear race will bypass directly to the two buildings, and no one will have to blow up.
Thus, when American scientists are ready to try their first hydrogen bomb at Bikini Atoll, they are in a hurry and do not care much about security. Atoll was a heavenly place with coconut palms (leaves, we did not come up with the first trip to exotic places under the guise of a business trip). Local residents in any case taken to the neighboring island, built a bar under the palm trees - in short, everything went according to plan.
The explosion was to draw somewhere in the 6 megatons and without radiation. Still, the hydrogen bomb. But frankly, the very composition of this bomb was experimental. About isotope 6Li, 40% filling, it was already known that it is included in the reaction and bahnet, but 7Li, which filled the remaining 60% is considered inert isotope that nothing in the essence does not change.
As you probably realized, there it was! The reaction came two isotopes, and with such force that began splitting uranium shell with the release of highly radioactive elements! The explosion in the end turned out in 2, 5 times more than planned, a crater with a diameter of 2 km, a mushroom cloud reached 40 km in height. Along paradise atoll became completely unsuitable for life, and the local population, huddled in terror on the neighboring island, hvatanuli hefty dose of radiation. Accidents bikiniytsy still get sick and huddle on another's territories, trying to achieve purification of the native land. However, the matter is, alas, hopeless.
2. forgotten stash
Error: wine added too much yeast and forget it in a dark corner of the winery.
Maybe it's just an advertising legend of champagne "Dom Perignon", but we want to believe that not all errors lead to tragedies, some - quite the contrary. So here's a wonderful story about a drinking monk Pierre Perignon scattered, who lived in the XVII century in the Abbey Oville and headed there a wine cellar. Most of the cellar in a classic red wine, which, frankly, in the vineyards of the Abbey turned out so-so, too sour. Nevertheless, Pierre tried very hard to fix the flaw that would add more sugar, the yeast sprinkled heart. But he still could not manage to find the right proportions. Employment zavpogrebom, you know, harmful, so it is not surprising that sometimes there were also flaws. One day in late autumn our Benedictine bottled not the most successful batch of wine, put it in a corner of the winery, and forgot it until the summer. June sultry noon, Pierre still wandered into the cubicle and threw up his hands. The heat and too much wine yeast ferment for a second time, it formed gases, and all but one of the bottles exploded pieces. Monk carefully uncorked the most stubborn bottle, drank - and ran out of the winery with a completely round eyes, filling the convent, shouting: "I'm drinking stars! Brothers, come quickly here! "Thus it was invented a way to re-fermentation of wine and the most expensive champagne planet.
3. This is a breakthrough
Error: engineer William Mulholland decided to increase the height of the dam of Saint Francis 3 meters.
Consequences: The worst flooding occurred through the fault of man.
William Mulholland is the embodiment of the American dream. A self-taught engineer with a dead business acumen managed to subjugate all major hydraulic projects in California. In 1924, Mulholland has at its disposal project of the century - the dam of Saint Francis, which was to block the valley of the same name and form the main reservoir for the Los Angeles drinking water. The volume of the reservoir - 39 million cubic meters. m. When the dam was almost ready, Mulholland decided to increase its height by 3 meters, bringing the size of the reservoir to 42 million cubic meters. m. In this case, the thickness of the dam has been decided to leave the old to fit into the budget. In autumn 1927 the construction of St. Francis has been completed and the reservoir began to fill with water. 7 March 1928 the water reached a peak, the dam was put into operation. A few days after the opening of the engineer called the watchman of St. Francis and asked to come to the object - to look at the strange cracks appearing at the bottom. Mulholland went and decided that the cracks - a common phenomenon in the commissioning of the giant dam. On the night of 12 March 13 St. Francis Dam was demolished a water stream that the wave height of 38 meters and moved to the ocean at a speed of 8 km / h. On the face of the earth it was washed away five cities, hydroelectric, countless cars. The exact number of victims is not known, about 450 people. Immediately after the incident, Mulholland said, "I envy those who died in the stream. Do not look for the guilty: I blame for everything! »
4. The last flight
Error: Launch of shuttle "Challenger" at a temperature of 1 degree below the minimum allowed.
The consequences: first kosmokatastrofa Live, the transfer priority to human space exploration in the United States on the mechanical.
For the start of the space shuttle "Challenger" January 28, 1986 followed the whole of America, for the first time aboard the shuttle flew "tourist" - Christa McAuliffe, the winner of the "Teacher in Space". Meanwhile, behind the scenes of cosmic engineers whined that the rubber sealing ring shuttle function poorly at low temperatures, it is necessary to wait a good 12 degrees. Nevertheless, in the morning on January 28 at a temperature of -2 C ° «Challenger" was launched. After 73 seconds a rubber sealing ring of the right solid rocket booster exploded, hot gases penetrated outside and led to an explosion of the fuel tank. Draw in the sky fiery smoky arc, the shuttle broke apart and crashed into the Atlantic Ocean. The American space program has been suspended for 2, 5 years. Subsequently, the United States made a bid to increase the number of satellites, not astronauts.
5. Lost in Translation
Error: incorrectly translated word.
Consequences: the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
In July 1945, the Second World War actually came to an end. Newest staunch enemy of the anti-Hitler coalition remained Japan. At a conference in Potstdame Japanese were required to surrender immediately, otherwise the allies promised to go to the "decisive action." International journalists in Tokyo did not find a place, hoping the first report on the Japanese decision. However, the government of Japan did not hurry to answer. In those tense weeks in Tokyo American reporter managed to catch the Premier Kantaro Suzuki and ask him what Japan thinks about the ultimatum. Mr. Suzuki made a tight face and growled: "Mokusatsu." One of the meanings of the word - to "ignore." The news went immediately through all channels in the US and came to the headlines: "Japan ignores the Potsdam ultimatum!" But there is another meaning - "to remain neutral and wise silence." That is in fact the Prime meant that the government still thinks, but clearly overestimated the linguistic knowledge of American journalists. As soon as Mr. Suzuki is really wise to remain in silence, and world history might have taken a completely different path. And America responded immediately: there was a good excuse to try the "Little Boy" and "Fat Man" in action. Because of a small mistake of journalists world knew what combat use of nuclear weapons.
6. The curative mud
Error: Alexander Fleming forgot to wash petri dish.
The consequences: people have learned to treat syphilis, well, something else on the little things.
Of course, our list would be incomplete without the famous story about the discovery of penicillin. If suddenly you do not know how it happened, we are happy to tell. Scottish scientist Alexander Fleming in 1928, ignored the rules of the laboratory and instead wash dishes for themselves, leaving the window Petri dish with staphylococci. The next day a careless researcher found in a cup of not only native staphylococci, but some alien mold, ruthlessly destroys the tenants. Later, Fleming realized that mold - it is actually a fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, from which you can get very useful penicillin. So in our world came the first antibiotics. By the way, they not only brought medicine to a new level, but also contributed to the emergence of the most exotic subspecies staphylococci, which in dopenitsillinovuyu era, and it was scary to think.
7. If the goal appeared suddenly ...
Error: judge credited a goal.
Consequences: crush the bloodiest in the history of sports.
May 24, 1964 in Lima, Peru held the final qualifying match, which was to decide the team - a participant of the Olympic Games in Tokyo. The owners of the stadium, to put it mildly, no luck with the draw: Peruvian team played against Argentina. Those expected desired goal scored in the first minute. But a miracle happened: Peruvians have begun to defend themselves like devils, not missing a single ball and two minutes before the end of the match Bertolotti Peruvian Andres scored a goal in the Argentine goal! Stadium raged. And then ... the judge refused to deduct a goal. Peruvian fans went on whistling. Started a brawl in the stands, on the north side, they have grown into a mass brawl. There has directed the police with tear gas, triggering panic. However, the doors of the stadium by a strange order management were tightly locked. As a result, National Stadium, Peru has become a place where there was the most terrible crowd in the history of sports. In total, 318 people were killed ease. And all because of that one pest judge credited a goal.
8. Do not sticks - to kill
Error: stick, stuck in a snowdrift.
Consequences: avalanche destroyed half the army under Hannibal crossing the Alps, and a failed conquest of Rome.
Hannibal Barca, the Carthaginian general who was known as the greatest strategist of his time. It was he who in 218 BC. e. I came up with the army to climb through the Alps, to go down the enemy out of the blue. * So, Silius Italicus says that, despite the savagery venture, Carthaginian troops cope with climbing very well. It's frightening to think what would have happened if Hannibal before the next storm tend to thrust a stick into the snow, to prove his strength. How do you, in fact, already understood and followed an avalanche that buried the nearly half of the hapless Army commander. As a result of 38 thousand soldiers, 8000th cavalry and 37 elephants to Italy reached 20 thousand infantry, 4000 cavalry and three "Elephant." However, even with these forces Hannibal managed to win a couple of quick tactical victories and reached almost to the center of the country, where he was detained by the swamp. Many historians have no doubt that if the Carthaginian army crossed the Alps with minimal losses, we would not see any of the Colosseum or salad "Caesar", nor by the Roman Empire. And would live in this place proud Carthaginians (in fact, Tunisians) with a crescent on the arms.
9. Where is the paper?
Error: Confederate Army officer put his directive in a cigarette case and lost it in the parking lot.
Consequences: the beginning of the retreat Confederate victory of the North, the abolition of slavery.
No one knows what would have ended the war between North and South (and, as it seemed the film "Gone with the Wind"), if the Confederate Army General Daniel Harvey Hill had a habit of poking preglupuyu important papers in his cigarette case. Once in the parking lot in Maryland Harvey Hill he received from the Chief of the southern forces of General Robert E. Lee ordered number 191 - the plan the next attack the Confederates. It was painted in great detail. Harvey Hill honored, I lit a cigarette and ... did you understand that. And then he dropped a cigarette case from his pocket and was idyllic lie under the trees. There's a couple of days after the southerners left the parking lot, and found his Republican Army Corporal Barton Mitchell. Barton immediately took a piece of paper superiors. According to eyewitnesses, the commander of the Potomac Army George Makkelan exclaimed, "If this document I have not polished face to General Lee, you can send me home!" And he shined his, so much so that the Battle of Antietam, won by Republicans using the order number 191, became the bloodiest one-day battle in American history, all set back the Confederates from the northern territories.
10. Fatal proximity
Error: zinc pipe city water system held too close to the steel pipeline, which supplied fuel to the gas station.
Consequences: 10 explosion that destroyed half of the city of Guadalajara.
It is not that sunny morning of April 22, 1992 near the city of Guadalajara Analko there were no signs woes. Residents feel more trouble for a few days before the tragedy, when tap water has become clearly smell gasoline (agree, it can not alert). However, the authorities announced that there was nothing wrong with that, on the water intake station, everything seems fine. At 10 am on April 22 manhole covers on the street Aldama steel themselves to bounce out of them saw thick white smoke. 10.05 The first explosion rocked the two that hit several houses in the streets of Aldama and Kalzada Indepensiya. A third explosion in 10.08 raised in the air passenger bus, which is turned over several times, down right in the center of a busy intersection. The explosions followed one after another, and the area turned into a branch of Analko hell where everything collapsed and burned, and people in a panic rushed through the streets, not knowing where to run. In the end, all the accumulated gasoline vapors in the sewer or exploded, or went out to the surface. Guadalajara beginning to recover and count the victims. A total ease killed 252 people, 15 thousand homeless. The reason for that was a small mistake workers chinivshih city water. At one point they put new galvanized pipe is almost close to the steel pipes gas station. In contact steel and zinc in high humidity pipe collapsed, and gasoline began to enter the city water system. What was the source of the spark that triggered a series of explosions, and remained unknown. We do not want to spoil your favorite tradition, but perhaps the true culprit Guadalajara hell was unknown amateur cast unquenched cigarette in the toilet.