For centuries, weapons are constantly being improved. But in human history have affected only a few models.
I present to you the most significant models of weapons.
Hand Gun, XIII century
As you know, gunpowder came to us from China. In the X century in China, in addition to a wide variety of fireworks and flamethrowers, we developed a lot of gunpowder weapons, most known as the "fire lances" and "Fire Dragon". First real firearm, to run a shell from which the powder was used, can be dated by XIII century, the reign of the Yuan Dynasty. This weapon was a bronze hand gun he was holding one man and another zapalival. Despite the fact that the long-range missiles was quite small, and the accuracy of the low, smoke, fire and the roar must have frightened the enemies.
Gatling gun 1862
One of the first true machine gun .50 caliber models with the actual rate of over 700 rounds per minute, was invented by Richard J.. Gatling. Gatling gun - six-barreled weapon with a revolving barrel unit, driven by a handle equipped with a gravity feed system of ammunition from the store, which provides automatic charging and shot each barrel by turning the block. After his first brief appearance in the American Civil War, the Gatling gun was much more effective in the Spanish-American War, in their turn, as the British used its deadly force in the colonial wars against the Zulus in South Africa and the Mahdist Sudan.
Colt "Peacemaker" 1873
Samuel Colt was not the inventor of the revolver, but it was the first time he replaced them with single-piece production of skilled gunsmiths on the conveyor. That company Colt introduced the mass production of such weapons, as a single action revolver, better known as the "Peacemaker", or 45. Initially Colt "Peacemaker" was designed for the US cavalry, but the most widespread use it has received in the days of the Wild West. According to one version, in six-Colt used cartridges .44-40 Winchester caliber, so the Cowboys could use the same ammunition for their rifles and pistols for.
Machine gun "Maxim" 1883
Sir Hiram Maxim was an American inventor, who had emigrated to Europe. Among his inventions is possible to note the fire suppression system and the development of the airplane with a steam engine, but the greatest success of his creation got more - a fully automatic machine gun "Maxim". It is a weapon that works on the principle of the recoil of the barrel - it did not need to be recharged by hand, as the Gatling gun. In contrast, the force of impact in a machine gun "Maxim" threw an empty cartridge and charge a new one. Because of its obvious advantages "Maxim" was much more efficient and reliable than its weapons of competitors, so in World War two warring parties to use this type of weapon, which remained in operation until the 1960s.
Colt M1911 1911
In 1904, John Browning invented a new type of cartridge .45 with improved stopping power. Based on this development, the designer creates a gun - M1911, which in 1911 had been adopted. During the decades of his life, not only M1911 gained a special respect, but also inspired great fear. Only after going through two world wars in Korea and Vietnam, the Colt M1911 was replaced by 9-timillimetrovuyu "Beretta" M9. M1911 has earned the respect of its accuracy and reliability, and in spite of twice the capacity of the store, "Beretta" and less likely to accidental discharge, many still prefer the Colt M1911.
Browning M2 1933
Another significant contribution to the development of John Browning's military equipment was the invention of the most impressive machine gun ever created by man. Designed in the final stages of World War I, M2 was originally equipped with a water cooling system, which later gave way to the air, which required replacement of the trunk at heavier. "Fifty" - a rather bulky weapon (about 40 kilograms), but shoots .50 caliber projectile with an energy greater than the energy of a conventional bullet 4 times. Such a shell hit inch steel armor and deadly when hit from a distance of two kilometers. M2 is still relevant, in addition the model has not undergone any fundamental changes.
"M1 Garand" 1936
Canadian John Garand, the engineer arms company Springfield Armory, has developed the world's first semi-automatic rifle. Officially known as the "rifle caliber .30, M1" it became known throughout "Garand". To recharge the cartridge in the mechanism of "Garand" part of the energy used high-pressure gases generated during firing, which provides a higher rate than the earlier models the bolt though the store only 8 rounds, of course, reduces the effectiveness of the use of ammunition. During the Second World War it was made about 4 million units of the M1, and General George. Patton called "Garand" "the greatest weapon ever created».
The new 9-timillimetrovy machine was originally designed by Major Uziel Gall for the Israeli army. "Uzi" was equipped with a rotary mechanism, locking the breech bolt, thereby reducing the overall length of the weapon. In combination with the folding stock, this inventive breakthrough made "Uzi" light and compact than it provided in popularity since its inception. Crews took "Uzi" adopted instead of the gun, while the Special Forces needed a lightweight and convenient weapon in tight spaces. There were created more than 10 million machines, including models micro "Uzi", the size of a large gun.
When, in the 1940s, Mikhail Kalashnikov began to develop an assault rifle for the Soviet Army, he knew exactly what model should be simple, reliable and cheap, which would play an important role is firepower, not accuracy. Probably the 7.62 mm AK-47 -The most effective and popular weapon in history, the number of units created Kalashnikov exceeds 75 million. Large gaps between moving parts allow the AK-47 to be easy to manufacture and resistant to sand, dirt and dust. The incredible strength of the model, ease of operation and training in the use made "Kalashnikov" weapon of guerrillas, freedom fighters, as well as terrorists in the world.
"Glock 17", 1982
Austrian Gaston Glock was more an engineer in the field of polymeric materials, rather than a gunsmith, which is why its revolutionary 9mm "Glock 17" is not nothing but a simplified model pistol, made mostly of plastic, with the exception of the barrel. Housing "Glock" is much lighter and stronger than steel, also absorbs some of the energy of recoil. Why in the name of present number 17? It's all about a 17-round magazine, which was the 17th patent Gaston Glock. Equipped with such a store, with improved ergonomics and three independently operating automatic fuses (shot does not, is not completely pressed the trigger "safe action"), "Glock" quickly captured two-thirds of the US police market.
Probably the most innovative small arms can be called a modern 25-millimeter grenade XM-25, or as it is called "The Punisher." The XM-25 is equipped with a laser rangefinder that allows to calculate the exact distance for a shot, so you can detonate grenades in the air at the desired height, allowing opponents to hit even in shelters - in the trenches and on the walls. In 2010 in Afghanistan have been released first five experimental models that have received good reviews. Currently, however, the mass production is still difficult because the calculated cost of "The Punisher" is about 30 thousand dollars.