Today I wanted to put together and submit for your consideration the accumulated information about the bullet cartridge .22 or 5.6 mm - the smallest patronchik for "melkashki", which some consider almost a toy, and fit only for shooting at sparrows.
33 photos + video, and text.
Title caliber - 22 - comes on the diameter of the bullet - it is 0.22 inches.
As shown in this diagram, the .22 cartridges do not have a cap, and are called side-fire ammunition.
Impact (some sources it is called capsule) composition is pressed into the rim of the liner. At the time of product shots, striker weapon crushes rim, igniting priming composition, which in turn ignites the main powder charge.
Such a device includes a cartridge that should be easy to wrinkle lip brisk, so the sleeve can be made as strong as later invented cartridge cases the central battlefield. This feature rounds the side of fire limits the maximum pressure to which it is possible to equip these munitions if pour gunpowder, then the shot will be torn sleeve.
The name of the topic, I specifically mentioned only gauge, not a particular cartridge, because they are now produced several different, of which the most popular - 22 short (short), 22LR (or Long Rifle, a long rifle) and 22 WMR (Winchester Magnum Rimfire).
The oldest of these rounds, .22 short, appeared in 1857, designed by the latest at the time the revolver Smith & Wesson Model 1.
.22 Short - the first metal powder cartridge, which appeared in the United States. Before his appearance, the old-fashioned, poured the powder into the drum percussion cap pistol and pushed by a lever lead a round bullet, or used paper "bullets" - by and large are not bullets, and pre-measured amount of powder and a bullet wrapped in paper, to accelerate loading.
The appearance of the cartridge .22 short accelerated the charging times, so revolver Smith & Wesson model number 1 has become very popular, successfully used by soldiers during the Civil War, and after the war was a true friend of the pioneers of the Wild West. By the way, according to some sources (I'm all sources listed at the end) because of this revolver August 2, 1876, Jack McCall shot the famous Wild Bill Hickok (Wild Bill Hickok) during a poker game. The retreat for lovers of poker - poker name of dead man's hand comes from those cards that Wild Bill was holding at the time of death - 2 black aces and 2 black eights. :)
It turns out that .22 short - the oldest of ammunition, a kind of patriarch, who is still being produced and used - mainly in revolvers and rifles, although there are guns too. :)
It looks like a revolver Smith & Wesson Model 1. foresee a question - where's the trigger, how to shoot? I was also puzzled, so got on YouTube and found there a video with almost the same gun, only models 1.5. It turns out, the trigger (lever) is there, he gets out, if the cock. This is interesting - here's a link.
.22 LR, or Long Rifle
That he is, all known cartridge for small-bore rifle.
Immediately, I note that, despite the name of the long rifle, a long rifle, this cartridge is used not only rifles but also pistols and revolvers.
I'm sure you all saw it, even people far from the shooting on TV for sure - these are the ammunition used in the biathlon. Next, SHipulin baby, Zaitsev Viluhina and everyone else !!! :) Well, Darya Domracheva individual congratulations, well done! :)
Without a doubt, now .22lr is the most popular patron in any case in the United States, and perhaps in the world, too.
The cartridge was developed in 1887 after the success of .22 short, by connecting the now defunct cartridges .22 long and .22 extra long.
The company J. Stevens Arms & Tool Company beginning of .22 long sleeves fit over heavy bullet used in the cartridge .22 extra long (bullet weighing 2.6 grams)
I get amazing ammunition: very accurate, quite powerful, yet relatively quiet, almost does not return, and, in addition, cheap. :)
All these characteristics make the cartridge ideal for people just starting to take an interest in shooting sports, because of the price, low impact and not very loud sound of a shot, and for professional shooters, because of the high accuracy, and, again, prices. :)
.22 Lr cartridges are available with different powder HITCH - Subsonic, Standard Velocity, Hight Velocity and Hyper Velocity.
Subsonic - subsonic ammunition, a bullet flies at a speed less than the speed of sound. They used mainly in the sport since the passage of the bullet sound barrier albeit slightly, but affect the flight path that is undesirable for sport shooting.
Standard velocity is used mainly in revolvers and some rifles. Typically, these cartridges are kitted shell-less lead bullet. The main application - training at a shooting range.
High velocity - the most frequent patron. It is used for hunting and for target shooting of very different weapons, from pistols to rifles and pistols. Typically, such a bullet cartridge - with copper sheath, often they are expansive.
Hyper velocity - new developments in recent years (well, relatively, the last 30 years). It should be noted cartridges CCI Stinger and Remington Yellow Jacket. They use a lighter expansive bullet, but it disperse up to 500 m / c. Such ammunition used for hunting small game, and for self-defense. For target shooting are expensive. :)
In the photo - from left cartridge with expansive high velocity bullet in the copper shell, on the right - standard velocity with conventional lead bullet.
Also produced chuck .22 WMR. This is a later development by Winchester in 1959. The sleeve is longer than that .22lr, allowing you to use more gunpowder.
The cartridge is not cheap compared to others in this caliber, used for hunting and self-defense.
The link - a comparison of the bullets hit .380 and .22 wmr companies in Hornady ballistics gel. Almost the same!
Fuhh, like almost everything about the basic options written. And, there is also a 22-gauge shotgun cartridges, curb fraction # 12, but in practice they can be used except for hunting mice at a distance of several meters, for anything else, they do not fit.
Here, the picture presented all the bullets, which were discussed, well and added others to compare.
So, left to right:
1. 22 short, the smallest of all.
2. 22LR with a lead bullet, standard velocity
3. 22LR with expansive bullet in the copper cladding, high velocity
4. 22 WMR
5. 9 mm Luger
6. .45 ACP (Automatic Colt Pistol)
7. .223 Remington (5.56 Nato, used in M-16 rifles and multiple versions) of Russian production in the steel liner with a bullet 55 Grand - 3.56 grams
8. Also .223 Remington, but with a heavier bullet weighing 4.17 grams, manufactured by Winchester
9. Cartridge 7.62x54R - one that is used in the Mosin rifle and SVD.
10. 12 gauge shotshell.
Now, friends, I tell you why I feel about .22 with great respect.
Firstly, chuck up to a distance of 200 meters is very accurate.
How accurate? It all depends on the shooter.
Yutuber 22plinkster deals that puts the online video with its completely phenomenal shooting from weapons of .22 caliber. Here is one of them.
Secondly, as I wrote earlier, these cartridges are cheap. Judge for yourself, for a box of 50 pieces 9mm luger have to pay about 15-18 dollars. A 500 piece .22lr - cost around 20 to 10 times cheaper!
At that price, to train fire becomes too expensive, you can not afford to go to the shooting range or shooting often adjust to his arms, learn all its pros and cons, to accumulate shooting skills, to bring them to automatism.
I should add that many weapons in .22, too, is relatively inexpensive. Semi-automatic rifle, Ruger 10/22, reliable, accurate, cost from $ 200. New pistol or a revolver can be bought for $ 300- $ 400.
Third, do not underestimate the ability of the munition to kill. Watch the video, which demonstrates that .22lr, even at a distance of 450 yards (400+ meters), hit a pine board thickness of 1/2 inch (old tests used in the US Army. If you hit this board - hence can potentially kill a man. I do not know whether this is a scientific test, but nevertheless)
I've been trying to find statistics on murders in the United States, broken caliber. I found something here (http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/GUIC.PDF, if someone has more data - will be grateful for the link, I find nothing more could), but there is only data for Philadelphia, and only for one year. That year, 16% of murders in the city were committed with weapons of .22 caliber, which is not enough (in this document, by the way, a lot of other interesting information and statistics on the use of weapons of criminals in the United States)
Just a few facts about the weapons in the caliber .22lr
June 5, 1968, 24-year-old Palestinian, Shir Khan Shir Khan, at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, shot the presidential candidate of the Democratic Party of Robert Francis Kennedy (brother of the murdered in 1963 by President John F. Kennedy)
To attempt Shir Khan Shir Khan used a revolver Iver Johnson Cadet 55-A, caliber .22
Shir Khan Shir Khan for the murder in 1969, was sentenced to capital punishment, but in 1972 the highest measure commuted to life imprisonment.
He is now 69 years old and he is in jail in San Diego.
In 1977-1978 in Ohio, serial killers, brothers Harry and Thaddeus Lewington, 10 people were killed.
Criminals used the only weapon .22 caliber, for which he received the name & quot; .22 caliber killers & quot;
In the photo - Thaddeus Lewington.
March 30, 1981, John Hinckley tried insane shot US President Ronald Reagan in Washington with a revolver .22 caliber Rohm RG-14.
No one was killed, Reagan was wounded, shot in the lung. Besides Reagan were injured 3 other people, one of which presidential press secretary James Brady, wounds remain disabled for life.
John Hinckley in the court was declared insane, he is now 58 years old and is being treated in a psychiatric hospital (according to the information in Wikipedia, the treatment is successful, and even issued periodically for independent visits to the parents. It must be so, I would not let go. .)
Arms 22 caliber for many years used special forces in different countries. Especially popular are pistols and rifles with silencers.
A shot of a .22 caliber weapons and so a quiet, If you use a silencer and subsonic cartridges - can shoot almost silently.
So the gun during the Second World War, agents used OSS (Office of Strategic Services, the predecessor of this agency was the CIA).
This gun HDM .22
Israeli Mossad agents and "air Sheriff" (I know, sloppy sounds in English - sky marshals, Israeli intelligence officers accompanying Airlines, whose task is the protection of passengers and aircraft against terrorist attacks) also successfully used a .22 caliber weapon In particular Beretta pistols 70 and 71 models.
There comes to mind the story of the attack by militants of the National Front for the Liberation of Palestine on the ship of the Israeli airline El Al February 18, 1969 in Zurich.
While preparing to fly from Zurich airport, the plane tried to attack the four terrorists, two of whom were armed with machine guns, the other two - fragmentation grenades.
As soon as the first shots were fired - a secret agent on the plane - Mordechai Rachamim - he managed to get into the cockpit, and began to shoot at the attackers of the Beretta 70.
Then he managed to get out the back door of the aircraft, and continued to fight the fire, which resulted in killing the commander of the terrorists.
The three remaining terrorists surrendered to the police and the military appeared in time.
A curious fact - Israel in those days did not advertise the presence of agents spesluzhb accompanying flights El Al, so Mordechai Rahamim was arrested by Swiss police, moreover, it even tried tried for murder in a fit of passion with the terrorists. :)
It was during the trial representatives of Israel for the first time recognized the fact that Mordechai was on board no accident, namely to protect aircraft from such attacks.
As a result, Rahamim was acquitted, but the terrorists got ... just 12 years old.
This Beretta 70 model.
Currently, the US Navy Seals unit (seals) are armed with a pistol Ruger MK 2 with integrated silencer.
Here such. Beauty !!!
A few photos from me.
The bullet that I pulled out of the cartridge with pliers .22lr compared with penlight batteries. Here you can see that the bullet has "legs", bullet diameter is less than at the bottom.
Compared with the bullet Nato 5.56 (.223 Remington), one used in an M-16 rifle. As you can see, the difference is not very large in size, almost the same diameter, and the weight difference is not so great - from the M-16 bullet weighing 3.56 grams, from .22 - 2.6 grams.
But chuck .223 many times more. The bullet flies faster.
Another photograph for comparison, the same characters as in the previous photo, plus the far left bullet, which used the famous gun M1911 - it's a bullet caliber .45 ACP, weighing 15 grams.
In these boxes .22 lr cartridges sold in the United States.
Previously, the standard number of cartridges in the box were 500 pieces on "okolooruzheynom" slang such box called «brick», brick. :)
The US is a great shortage of ammunition, especially ammunition .22lr because of their popularity. Therefore recently appeared all sorts of clever packaging of ammunition .22lr, where producers have reduced the number of rounds, but the price, in this case, lomyat the same as before.
Damned capitalists! :)
Here you are, cans of normal price, but the bank - not 500 rounds of ammunition and 325 (where a number ???)
And many so. Who is reduced if memory serves me, up to 440 in the box (we will not say who, but everyone knows that it is a company American Eagle), who simply inflated prices.
In general, cashing in on the crisis and it is unpleasant.
I'll show my own test cartridges .22lr.
It was for the dog Toby bought pork leg in the store, but it was time for Toby - I tried to shoot it in advance.
That eloquent photo showing what can make a bullet cartridge .22 caliber in contact with the bone.
As you can see, the bone is completely shattered to pieces, and the bullet went into the meat still about 10 cm. It is not a rifle, is a revolver with a barrel less than 2 inches (for those who do not know much about - the difference is important, the longer the barrel - the higher the speed of a bullet. 2 inches - a very short barrel, the energy from the bullet is low, but also is unable to do ... I was, frankly, surprised)
Nooo, my friends, I would not have wanted to have someone hit me from the .22 caliber weapon.
A few words about the weapon, which is available in .22 caliber.
What can I say, it produced and performed his _ogromnoe_ number. But exactly how much has been done over the years - and no one will ever know. :)
In this caliber, you can buy anything, and a revolver and a pistol and a rifle.
In addition to weapons, specially manufactured for firing a cartridge .22lr, you can buy the so-called conversion kits - kits of components for the installation of large-caliber weapons to be able to shoot this weapon cartridges .22lr.
Meaning - to use their high-caliber weapons for training, but do not spend crazy money on ammunition (one cartridge .45 ACP is worth about 50 cents, think how much per day shoot)
These kits are sold for the AR-15 rifles and pistols for the M1911. Are US $ 300, but if you train a lot - makes sense to buy there because of the savings on cartridges. :)
Arms 22 caliber extremely popular in the United States.
I do not presume to guess how it was produced over the years, if anything at all gun owners, I know, be sure to have a rifle and a pistol 22 caliber, and a basic weapon from which shoot at the shooting range. :)
That data proizodstvo handguns in the US during the period of 1973-1993 years, broken caliber:
6.6 million .357 Magnum revolvers
6.5 million .38 Special revolvers
5.4 million .22 caliber pistols
5.3 million .22 caliber revolvers
4.5 million .25 caliber pistols
3.1 million 9 millimeter pistols
2.4 million .380 caliber pistols
2.2 million .44 Magnum revolvers
1.7 million .45 caliber pistols
1.2 million .32 caliber revolvers.
(a link to this source, I already gave, but just in case again: www.bjs.gov/content/ pub / pdf / GUIC.PDF
As you can see, if you put pistols and revolvers in .22 caliber - there will be a clear favorite. :)
In recent years, according to the ATF, noticeable decrease in the amount of the weapons in this caliber (as I understand it, the account is conducted only handguns, so the figures are far from "pure", in any case, the amount of the rifles, which are clearly more I have not found yes, most likely, they had never considered).
In general, given the fact of weapons that have been made for 150+ years, I believe that a variety of weapons in caliber .22 - the most common weapons in the United States.
I'll show what I know 22 caliber.