How to build a monument to Washington

George Washington Memorial was created in the image of the classical Egyptian obelisk. The height of the monument is 169 m and it rises above the city, being one of the highest stone constructions in the world. 50 Flags surround the base of the memorial and symbolize the 50 states of the Union. If you go up the elevator to the top of the pyramid, from the windows of the observation deck open views of the Lincoln Memorial, the White House, Thomas Jefferson Memorial and the Capitol building ».
Let's learn the story of its creation ...
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On the Esplanade, said in the text, see the second part of this review. And while on the Washington obelisk. George Washington Monument is the tallest building in the capital of the United States. (And the tallest building in Washington is the Capitol, which is just below the Washington Monument, but it was above the Capitol is actually forbidden to erect any buildings, but in the existing law of 1910 the name Capitol is not mentioned, but are only numerical parameters maximum height of buildings).
Dolny detailed essay "Washington Monument 100 years' history of the construction of the monument to its centennial, celebrated in 1984, at the time published the magazine" America ", published in Russian by the US government. Here are some excerpts of the extensive material (magazine "America», № 337):
"The completion of the monument was preceded by a century of its design, hopes, false starts construction of the buildings, including a quarter-century break, because the country was at war and slowly recovering from the terrible Civil War.
One can hardly overestimate the lead role of George Washington in the American history. He helped form the United States in three important ways: as commander in chief of the Continental Army that defeated England in the War of Independence; as chairman of the Convention, which was drawn up the US Constitution; as the first President of the United States.
The unfinished Washington monument photographed by Mathew Brady in 1860

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The first call for the construction of the Washington Monument came back in 1783, when the Continental Congress decided that there should be the equestrian statue in honor of the great general who had just led to the victory of his army of volunteers in the War of Independence. But the new country had different challenges and limited resources, and the time of death of Washington in 1799 is no monument to the most revered man of America has not been delivered. That prompted Congress to start a project from scratch, and in the next three decades, discussed various plans to build a sort of mausoleum in the building of the Capitol. All these plans failed when the family refused to Washington to carry his remains from his estate at Mount Vernon, Virginia.
In 1832, when the country celebrated the 100th anniversary of the birth of George Washington, the citizens founded the society in order to build a monument and started to collect donations. Any American who wanted to render all possible assistance, could donate just one dollar. By the mid-30s of the 19th century society activists have collected 28 thousand dollars and announced a competition to design a monument to national hero. The contest ended in 1836, and the winner was the architect Robert Mills (Robert Mills), whose project is a giant obelisk with a statue of the president at the top. As planned by the architect, the monument had to be narrowed to the top of, and around the obelisk is located to the colonnade with thirty statues of the heroes of the American Revolution.

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Monument to 1980 is administered by the Society.
In 1836, the Company has commissioned architects to propose projects of the monument. The winner was an engineer-architect Robert Mills, who later built the building of the Ministry of Finance, the Patent Office and the post office in downtown Washington. Mills project was limited to the construction of the 183-meter obelisk, surrounded at the base of the round, with the columns of a Greek temple height of 31 meters (this part of the project was later rejected).
Alas, the enormous cost of the project - a million dollars at that time was indeed staggering amount - caused the general public to abandon the realization of plans of Robert Mills in life. Architect and criticized for excessive pathos of the future monument, ordinary Americans like to see a monument more concise.

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In the end, the construction of the obelisk was spent almost twice as much money than required project Mills - 1,817,710 dollars. As a result, in 1848 it was decided to build only the obelisk, colonnade and about society organizers promised to think then, and gradually the idea was forgotten.
By the time the public was able to collect 87 thousand dollars. It was a lot of money, but they are clearly not enough for the construction, but the founders of the organization decided that barely begun, the construction of a monument to spur interest in the history and citizens themselves will be the best advertisement. Indeed, many Americans learned about the construction of the monument, have expressed their intention to support this noble cause.
The cornerstone of the monument was laid on July 4, 1848 (Independence Day in the US), and has been used is the paddle, which he used during the laying of the Capitol, Washington 55 years earlier. House Speaker Robert Winthrop, speaking at the ceremony of laying the obelisk, called on US citizens to build a monument that "would express gratitude to the American people ...
"Build it up to the sky! You will not be able to exceed the height of the principles of Washington. "

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The first few years of the obelisk has grown rapidly, but most of the work was interrupted in the mid-1850s, when the height of the monument was brought up to 46 meters: a fierce debate about slavery, looming threat of civil war. When Mark Twain in 1867, has worked in newspapers, the monument has not yet been built. "It's like - wrote Twain - factory chimney with a broken top, with a barn at the base, and tired pig sleeping in the holy silence of his grace shade»
In 1876, Congress allocated funds to complete construction. December 6, 1884 was set the last keystone. The official opening ceremony took place on the platform just a few meters from the spire (as shown in the engraving on the top right. The memorial was opened to the public even after four years - 9 October 1888.)

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So he stands today, overlooking the Washington. The height 169 of 3 m, the width at the base 16, 8 m, and at the apex 10, 5 m. The thickness of the walls 4, 6 m at the base and 46 cm from the top. It weighs 79,590 tons. In 1888, it was installed a steam elevator, which in 1901 gave way to electric. The National Park Service has estimated that (at the time of the centennial monument) more than 72 million people have taken up this site to look at the panorama from the top of Washington. " (Magazine "America», № 337).

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Here are some facts about George Washington Monument, rebounding from the site data the US State Department and Russian broadcast "Voice of America", adding their researches our editorial on the subject from other sources

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The Washington Monument is located on the Esplanade in Washington, on the other "Mall", t. E. A pedestrian street.
"Esplanade - or as it is called here," the mall "- is a museum and park in the heart of Washington between the building of the US Congress and President Lincoln Memorial. To imagine Washington esplanade, imagine the lawn more than three kilometers in length and a width of about 100 meters on both sides of which, by the way, the museums and government buildings. Pierre L'Enfant, working esplanade project, guided by planning the Champs Elysees in Paris. He called his creation "Big prospectus».
This is the longest in the United States and cross the lawn bordered by paths of sand and gravel. If you wear the right shoes, for example, the much-loved American sneakers mall - quite a pleasant place for walking, jogging and other outdoor activities, the game of football, for example.
In the middle of the esplanade stands an obelisk - a memorial to George Washington, one of the most famous symbols of the US capital. The shape of an obelisk like a pencil, so Washingtonians jokingly called the monument "pencil».
Esplanade is also decorated with two small artificial pond, which are called "mirror pond." One is located near the Capitol, the other - between the Lincoln Memorial and Washington Monument. Mirror Pond near the obelisk was built so that the stele is reflected in it entirely, creating the illusion of two monuments twins.
Esplanade - this is the place for demonstrations, festivals and celebrations. It also runs July 4 Independence Day celebration with concerts and fireworks. " (Russian broadcast "Voice of America" ​​09/15/2002).

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"The original design of the monument, designed by Robert Mills, has undergone significant changes during construction. The current view of the monument has little to do with a complex design of mills, which is a combination of elements of Greek and Egyptian architecture and involves the construction of 600-foot obelisk surrounded by columns pantheon diameter of 250 and a height of 100 feet. Between the columns were supposed to be 30 niches in which over time should have been put statues of prominent Americans. Washington figure dressed in a toga and control triumphal chariot, was to adorn the entrance. " (US Department of State's website).
This initial draft of the monument, as the researchers write, was not implemented due to lack of funds. Society National Monument George Washington took Mills project execution without having the full amount for its implementation, having decided to start with the construction of the Egyptian obelisk, leaving the building a circular colonnade around the obelisk in the future. Later, despite the opinion of critics, is considered a monument without the surrounding colonnade "empty" and like "a stalk of asparagus", it had already decided to limit Straw Egyptian element of the project Mills - an obelisk.
1940

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Plates from donors and the league "neznaek»
"The monument is 36,491 stone slabs. The interior walls are decorated with carved panels 188, donated by individuals, communities, cities, states and nations of the world. " (US Department of State's website).
Among the many contributors plates for the monument in 1850's were Indian Association of the United States, for example, Pope Pius IX, whose plate in 1854 was stolen and thrown into the river Potomac participants of the American nationalist League «Know Nothing» («Dunno") Adhere to the anti-Catholic and antiirlandskih views. (In 1850 this league for some time had a controlling interest on the Company of the National Monument George Washington. This, along with the above-mentioned incident papal stone, led to a weakening of the flow of funds contributors and temporary denial of participation in the project of the state, and as a result, to stop construction. «Know Nothing» abandoned the management of the Company for the construction of the monument in 1858).
In those years of independence from the Kingdom of Japan Okinawa - Ryukyu Kingdom donated the stone that brought the United States well-known Commodore Perry (discoverer of Japan for the modern West), but the stove did not get to Washington. Some donors the then decorated their plates with inscriptions, unrelated to the memory of George Washington. For example, members of the public struggle for sobriety their plate for the Washington Monument was decorated with the inscription: "We will not buy, sell or use any alcohol or malt beverages, wine, cider or any other alcoholic beverages." Many boards are now replaced by that time.

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Different colors of marble top and bottom
"Did you know that there is a monument to the" ring "? Because of failures in the construction of the monument stood incomplete 25 years, height about 150 feet. Work resumed in 1880. However, once again delivered marble slabs were from another quarry. The difference in the color of the marble facing of notes "old" and "new" part of the obelisk. Marble is supplied from three different quarries, and it was impossible to choose the perfect color for the old and new stone. " (US Department of State's website).
Private company National Monument George Washington in the second stage of construction came to the aid of the army. Monument being completed the US Army Corps of Engineers.

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Pond nearby
"Between the George Washington Memorial and the Lincoln Memorial is a Mirror Pond. This pond is 2,000 feet long and 160 feet wide, contains 7 million. Gallons of water. It was created in the likeness of bodies of water in Versailles and Taj Mahal. Ponds to minimize excitement on the surface of the water and increases the sharpness of the water reflection of the monument. " (US Department of State's website).
1936

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Elevator
Established originally steam elevators were considered unsafe for women and children who had to climb to the top of the Washington Monument only internal staircase structure. Now, the audience rises to a monument on the elevator.

Incidents
In 1982, 66-year-old Norman Mayer, an activist for Nuclear Disarmament, riding up to the monument to the van, and threatened to blow it up in protest against the arms race. As a result, after negotiations Meyer was shot by the police, which, according to her statement, aiming for the engine of the van, but not in Mayer. Explosives and associates at Mayer was not found

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The Washington Monument is open daily, except on July 4 and December 25th. In the summer (from May 31 to September 6), it is open to visitors from 9 am to 22 pm. In winter, the building closes at 17 pm. Entrance to the monument is free, but you must get a ticket. All relevant information on the page of the Washington Monument on the site US National Park Service;

When UNESCO?
Unlike other famous monument of the United States - the Statue of Liberty in New York, Washington Monument are still not included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Site, where the New York statue comes from 1984.
The review was prepared with inputs from the magazine "America" ​​from the archive Portalostranah.ru, the US State Department for Russia and Russian infousa.ru broadcast "Voice of America".

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Before the advent of the Eiffel Tower (Eiffel Tower) monument was the tallest building on the planet. Back accessible by elevator or stairs, however, it will have to go 896 feet. The eastern side of the top of the obelisk on a marble wall carved with two words in Latin, 'Laus Deo', which means 'Praise God', and each day in the United States begins with the fact that the sun's rays illuminate the inscription.
Commander George Washington led the Continental Army to victory in the war of independence that Americans fought against Britain (Great Britain) from 1775 to 1783, and April 30, 1789 became the first American president. Today it is ranked among the founding fathers of the nation

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Today the Washington Monument is a hollow column with the top of a four-sided pyramid. Upstairs there is a viewing platform with eight windows that go on all four sides of the world. The monument is lined with 189 memorial marble slabs, which were donated by well-known personalities, institutions, organizations, cities and even countries. At the initial stage of the construction of one such plate, among other things, donated by Pope Pius IX (Pope Pius the Ninth), but she was not lucky - up to now it has not remained d'ney.
The plate was stolen and destroyed by representatives of anti-Catholic American organization 'Dunno' (Know Nothing party), which so frightened the idea of ​​invasion of Irish Catholic immigrants, they are one and a half decade trying to resist it. If 'Dunno' stretched a hundred years, they probably would be horrified when the US president was John F. Kennedy (John Fitzgerald Kennedy). Curiously, the active members 'neznaek' were able to gain control of the company for the construction of the monument, buying a controlling stake in that long delayed completion of the project.
If the monument were paid for their participation in each film, in which he 'shot', he had recouped its costs to build. For example, in a recent blockbuster '2012' monument destroyed by an earthquake and then by its ruins of past tsunamis. Interestingly, due to Virginia earthquake in 2011, on one of the slabs of the monument is really a crack.
Today, the monument is located in the administration of the National Park Service, which in 1998-2000 was carried out major reconstruction of facilities where the monument was completely covered in scaffolding.

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The inauguration of Barack Obama

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Inside the room

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The observation room

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The object is also a popular setting for games. Fallaut - 3

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Source: masterok.livejournal.com

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