How the computer

Twenty-first century, few people imagine life without a computer.
Now, all the operations we carry out only on a computer. We become afraid to think that some text will have to write on paper, a pen, because we can do it on the computer, check all the errors, and print on the printer.

The computer does not have one "father" in its creation was attended by many people, is the fruit of collective intelligence, worthy child of worthy representatives of the human race!
Remind all the names is not possible, one can only note the key figures and key moments.

• The history of the computer is closely linked with attempts to simplify and automate all kinds of calculations. Already in antiquity appeared simplest counting device - abacus. Then came the abacus.
• In the XVII century. It was invented the slide rule - counting tool to simplify the calculations by which operations on numbers are replaced by operations on the logarithms of these numbers.
• In 1642, the French mathematician and physicist Blaise Pascal (Pascal; 1623-1662) constructed an eight summing machine.
• In 1820, Frenchman Charles de Colmar created a calculating machine capable of producing multiplication and division.
• In 1812, English mathematician and inventor Charles Babbage (Babbage; 1791-1871), decided to eliminate the error of logarithmic tables, came to the idea of ​​mechanical calculation. In 1833, he drafted a machine for performing calculations. For the input and output data Babbage suggested using punch cards. Managing such a machine should be carried out by software.
• In 1833, the famous daughter of the famous poet Lord Byron - Englishwoman Ada Lovelace (Lovelace; 1815-1852) - are interested in Babbage's Analytical Engine. It was the first computer programmer, created the first program for this computer.
• In 1888, an American engineer Herman Hollerith (Hollerith; 1860-1929) built the first electromechanical computers. This machine, called the tabulator could read and sort the statistical records, encoded on punch cards. In 1890, Hollerith invention was first used in the 11 th US Census. The work was performed five hundred employees in seven years, Hollerith made with 43 helpers on 43 Tabs in one month.
In 1896, Herman Hollerith founded the company Tabulating Machine Company, which became the basis for future IBM (International Business Machines Corporation) - the company that has made a huge contribution to the world of computer technology.

Work on the theoretical basis for the computer went two parallel streams: the justification of the hardware and software of the study. But since the computer works with the information needed to begin to understand what it is - information?

One of the founders of the mathematical theory of information - Amer. engineer and mathematician Claude Elwood Shannon (Claude Shannon; 1916-2001) - in 1948 published a paper "Mathematical Theory of Communication", in which he presented his unified theory of information transmission and processing. According to Shannon information includes all types of messages, including those that are transmitted along the nerve fibers in living organisms. Shannon proposed to measure information in a mathematical sense, reducing it to a choice between two, or binary digits - "yes" or "no" (1 or 0, true or false, there is a signal or no signal, closed circuit or open). < br /> • In 1944, at one of IBM's collaboration with scientists at Harvard University commissioned by the US Navy was established machine "Mark-1". It was a monster weighing about 35 tons. "Mark 1" was based on the use of electromechanical relays and operated decimal numbers encoded on a punched tape. The machine could manipulate the numbers up to 23 digits. To multiply two 23-bit numbers it needed four seconds.

Electromechanical relays work fast enough. Thus began the development of alternative - the computer based on vacuum tubes. In 1946 he built the first electronic computer ENIAC. It weighed 30 tons, it is required to accommodate 170 square meters. Square meters. Instead of thousands of electromechanical components ENIAC contained 18,000 vacuum tubes. Considered a car in the binary system and produced five thousand three hundred additions or multiplications per second.


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