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The ancient walls of this sacred state saw not only the light of Faith and Hope, and sometimes the darkness happened to build their nest here. Lies, betrayal and envy not passed this place. Indifference instead of love, deceit — instead of wisdom, pride instead of humility, intolerance and greed – all of it was too. And this history will not forget...
The history of the Vatican permeated of contradictions and mystery. And despite the apparent spirituality of the papal States, here, too, in full seething passion, vengeance intrigued. For a long time the Catholic Church was closely connected with Rome.
It is about the Vatican tell scary legends, stories about the punishing hand of the Inquisition, which scared the people in the middle Ages.
During the Roman Empire, Christianity gradually gained strength throughout the religious community tried to seize power. But managed it is only the Roman community, and since then it has become not only a center of religious movements, but also into a powerful political force. Until the nineteenth century all the rest of the province suffered a state of siege, and held military courts, people were sent to prison or exile.
One of the legends associated with the Vatican, says that the founder of the Roman community was none other than a disciple of Jesus Christ — the Apostle Peter. In favor of this fact is telling and Chronicles, which has reached our days. Although today no one can say it was real after all, or so the Roman Church was trying to emphasize their superiority closeness to the founder of the religion of Christianity, but there is a story that Peter really preached and lived in Rome. According to legend, his tomb located on the hill where today is located the Vatican. And later there was erected the Church of St. Peter.
Another legend says that Rome was that city, which is the longest prevented the spread of the state of the Christian religion. And so here was shed the blood of the martyrs and here was killed, and Peter himself. Therefore, the Roman community was obliged to take upon themselves the responsibility to descendants for the redemption of the sins of its citizens. And because and was created by the Vatican.
But the most amazing and at the same time very sad mystery about the Vatican is the story of Pope John VIII, and more specifically, the Papessa. In history, Catholics have a very strange and very unpleasant for believers, the fact that today the Vatican is considered a fiction, but no one still really knows what really happened. According to legend, in the ninth century several years the papal throne was occupied by a woman. I must say that in those days a woman was considered the devil's spawn.
Pope Joan in the image of the whore of Babylon
So, according to legend, a Christian missionary, traveled the world, got a daughter Agnes. However, to carry around with this girl for a missionary was not the most worthy at the time occupation and so, having dressed her in male attire, made his first assistant. Agnes was a good student but one day her father was killed. For this teenage girl's best option to survive was to remain a boy. She traveled around the world several years and in the end stayed in a monastery near Fulda, taking his name Johann.
She strongly stood out among his brothers, but at the age of sixteen, falling in love with a monk, fled with her lover to France. But on the way he died, and Agnes was left under the name of Johann, beginning a new life. Arrived in Rome and began to slowly move to the top tier of the clergy, and in the year 855, after the death of Pope Leo IV ascended to the papal throne. And, it is possible that one would never know about the true field of the Pope, but Agnes showed mistake: she got pregnant. The fight she had in the process of the procession, which ended for the child and for the Papessa death.
Also the most thrilling mystery of the Vatican is the location of the tomb of the Apostle Peter. It is connected to a very interesting story which happened recently in the middle of the last century.
So, February 10, 1939, when he died, Pope Pius XI, in the great Cathedral of St. Peter gathered a huge number of believers who in mournful unison prayed for the repose of the soul of the Pontiff.
At the same time, under the nave of the Cathedral, in the crypt of the work was in full swing. Workers were removed from the floor of the dungeon marble slabs. But Prokopov twenty centimeters spades again came across the plate. Moreover, the wall was spacious enough niche. And since the workers knew that the Cathedral was built on piles in loose soil, they have a doubt on: or not to proceed with the excavations, as they could disturb the equilibrium of the whole building.
But what makes a dungeon these workers, and it is in a day? It turned out that they did the will of the deceased Pope, who in these moments the crowd of believers was off in the last journey. On the eve of the last will and Testament of Pius XI, written by him personally, was opened, where he wanted to be buried under the southern wall of the ancient dungeons, about Pius X, close to "the confessional" Peter, where, according to legend, the tomb was the first disciple of the Savior.
"Confessional" of the Apostle Peter (under the floor of the alleged burial place of the Apostle)
Managing the Affairs of the Vatican, cardinal Pacelli, who in a few days, had to accept the papal dignity and the name Pius XII, he ordered to prepare a grave in bequeathed. Although the architects warned that the grave there is hardly enough space, the cardinal was ordered to remove the dungeon floor behind the wall to free up the necessary space.
Workers stood around the priest carefully looked at the debris that scraped the workers. His name was Ludwig Kaas. On a nationality the German, Kaas had the title of doctor and was Professor of Church history. When dad had instructed him to explore the dungeon under the Cathedral, so in the next five years at Kaas span explored that dungeon.
Spacious niche, which was discovered under the floor, made me think that maybe this is the tomb of Peter.
The mystery of the tomb of the Apostle Peter possessed the heart and soul Pacelli rest of his life. When the Conclave elected him Pope, and he became Pius XII, he went to the dungeons to his own eyes to see the sacred plate. The Pontiff, after much deliberation ordered that his predecessors were afraid to even voice: he ordered excavations under the Cathedral, where, in his opinion was supposed to be the tomb of the Apostle.
I must say that the Pontiff took the risk. After all, if it turned out that there's nothing there, and St. Peter was not in the Vatican, it will be a Testament which completely refute the sacred legend.
It turned out that the plates, which they found, was nothing like the ground floor of the first Basilica, which in the early fourth century was erected by the Emperor Constantine. And tradition says that the altar of the Church stands over the tomb of Peter, and when the very Basilica of Constantine was destroyed, in its place was built the Cathedral, one that has survived until today. And the altar set in the same place, the hole in the floor of the window — in a confessional, from which believers could eyes turned to the tomb of St. Peter, hidden deep underground. But it was at least strange, because one certainly couldn't have known was there the relics of St. Peter or not.
On the excavations, no one knew that the "masons" were obliged to be silent and not to talk about work to anyone, not even family. But after the war, the world learned about the excavations.
In their speeches, Pius XII in a rather veiled form hinted that the excavations will bring some "confidence" but his omissions only spurred interest.
But as far as the workers dug, the more interesting things they found. If earlier it was considered that the southern wall based on the wall who was once the circus of Nero, and that part of the Cathedral is where under Nero the Christians were put to death, and where, as was supposed, and was crucified, Peter, excavations have brought to light a completely different.
It turned out that the Basilica of Constantine was built at the place where once was a cemetery. Can you imagine the condition of archaeologists when they came across the first one mausoleum, and then the others which stood in a row, turning in a kind of enfilade. Under the blows of shovels out of the darkness appeared a necropolis: dozens of mausoleums, sarcophagi and crypts...
Gradually it became possible to identify and outline cemeteries: indeed, it was the largest necropolis of the ever found here by archaeologists. And it was located just under the nave. From the inscriptions on the tombs seemed that burial meant for the Gentiles and only some of them — for Christians. So they were buried here even at the dawn of Christianity, long before Constantine ordered to build a temple at this place. This meant that the Christians chose this pagan cemetery as their final resting place.
But why? This must have been a very good reason: for example, the desire to find eternal peace near Peter.
One of the mausoleums was surrounded by a wall, which the archaeologists called the "red wall". And that there was found a mosaic with the image of a Galilean fisherman. Yes, the same Peter, whom the Savior has called to feed His sheep.
Thus, it is possible to restore the chronology of events. In 67, Peter was executed in Nero's circus and buried at a nearby cemetery. And since the 80s, his tomb began to protect: this is evidenced by the wall in the dungeon. It is possible that Christians probably bought the plot, built around the tomb of Peter that stone fence. Thus, in the second century the faithful were delivered to the so-called "red wall".
It turns out that the excavations in the cave confirm the existing tradition, but the question arises: if the tomb of Peter was found, where he could get his power?
"Enclosed place" explored the length and breadth, finding that this was the tomb of St Peter, but there was one thing. Unfortunately, it was empty.
But the scientists were less pessimistic. Some experts on the history of Catholicism say that in one of the niches are human remains, but without the skull. Medical examination proved that the bones of one man, and a man not very old age. In the documents about these remains mentioned in passing, however, there is every reason to believe that the remains found under the "red wall", still belong to the tomb of Peter.
Pope Francis and Metropolitan. John of Pergamon, made a joint prayer before the so-called "tomb of St. Peter the Apostle"
One day in July 1939, Pius XII thoughts turned to the "confessional" of the Apostle St. Peter. It was at this time he took a very responsible decision for themselves "dig" to secrets, despite the fact that many still would prefer that this secret was surrounded by a veil of mystery — because then it would be much safer to live...
But for some reason, it seems that Pius XII left this life peacefully, without a heavy heart. After all, in the end, this dad convinced that he believed his whole spiritual life is not in vain, and the answer to his question, he knew even before he was found by archaeologists. Indeed, faith is often still ahead of science.