In science there is a problem: the imbalance between matter and antimatter in the Universe. Scientists believe that in the process of the Big Bang should have formed equal amounts of matter and antimatter that would have annihilated and turned into zero. But since we are alive and witnessing the matter, something went wrong. What?
Several experiments, including the BaBar experiment SLAC National accelerator laboratory, have helped explain some — but not all — aspects of the problem. Now a SLAC theorist and his colleagues have proposed a possible method of finding answers to questions involving the Higgs boson.
In a paper published in the journal Physical Review D, they argue that the scientists of the Large hadron Collider that detected the Higgs boson, will be to look for specific events of Higgs decay when the Collider will run again in 2015. The details of this collapse will be able to answer the question, Higgs participated or did not participate in the issue of the imbalance of matter and antimatter.
"It's time to plan a search strategy, says Matt Dolan, researcher at SLAC and co-author of the work. — When the TANK is fully operational, we will be ready".
Why the Universe has more matter than antimatter (or matter/antimatter) is one of the most serious issues among the particle physicists and cosmologists, in addition, it is based on the very essence of our existence. In the time after the Big Bang, when the universe cooled enough for the formation of matter, most pairs of particles of matter-antimatter should have been mutually destroy each other. But something tipped the balance in favor of matter and we are the stars, planets, galaxies, life found a place in the sun.
The recently discovered Higgs boson is directly related to the issues of mass and matter. And a very logical question of whether the Higgs boson to be involved in the predominance of matter over antimatter.
The work is based on the phenomenon called violation of CP-invariance violation of combined parity. BaBar explores exactly this phenomenon. The violation of CP-invariance suggests that the nature of the different particles and determines their mirrored version with the opposite charge.
"Search for violation of CP invariance at the LHC is a complex process, says Dolan. — We have just begun to study the properties of the Higgs, and the experiments must be very carefully designed if we want to improve our understanding of how the Higgs behaves under different conditions".
First, researchers must confirm that the Higgs fits into the Standard model, currently the best description of matter, energy and processes that are behind this. A Higgs that fits the Standard model is CP-even; that doesn't fit is CP-odd. The key point that will show that the Higgs is involved in the violation of CP-invariance, is that it will combine the even and odd dimensions.
Theorists have proposed experiment that will look at the process of decay of the Higgs to two Tau particles, whereas the remaining energy from ordinary proton-proton collisions will be ejected in two jets, or streams. Any mixture of CP-parity and CP-odd in the Higgs boson will be determined by the angle between the two jets.
"This is a very serious and complex analysis," says Philip Harry, a staff physicist at CERN and co-author of the work. Harris is conducting a study of the decays of Higgs to Tau and Tau, evidences of which appeared only recently." "I would like to add a measure of violations of CP invariance in our analysis and that suggested Matt, Martin and Michael — the most viable option, said Harris, adding that he would look forward to when the TANK will start to generate data. Even with data collected over several months, we will be able to draw concrete conclusions about the participation of the Higgs in CP-violations".